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Functionalised Graphene Enhanced Fabric for Antibacterial Masks

Posted By Graphene Council, Friday, July 3, 2020
Haydale is pleased to announce a new collaboration agreement (“the Agreement”) has now been signed between Haydale Technologies (Thailand) Co., Ltd. (“HTT”) and IRPC Public Company Limited (“IRPC”). The Agreement is to develop the Organic conducting-based printing smart fabric (Contract No. AL.0748/2563), by using Haydale’s functionalised technology, potentially for medical use and related applications.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Haydale has been developing a functionalised graphene coated fabric. The Thailand Textile Institute (THTI) has carried out tests on the coated fabric that show antibacterial finishes in excess of 99.3% on the textile material after 10 washes (AATCC TM100:2012, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 and Escherichia Coli DMST 4212 ATCC 25922).

Following tests, an agreement has now been signed with IRPC to develop the functionalised graphene coated fabric for medical use and related applications. These include the development of a new washable functionalised graphene-enhanced fabric mask. The scope of the project will be to focus on the commercial production of fabric and further development will take place to assess additional fabric properties such as Virus Filtration Efficiency (VFE), UV Protection and EMC protection.

The global healthcare PPE industry has an approximate value of 17 – 19 billion USD (Source: Frost & Sullivan), with huge growth seen in the personal healthcare industry. The graphene coated fabric will provide an additional solution to this industry.

This bespoke ink, developed by Haydale, will be delivered on an exclusive basis for commercial applications. IRPC and HTT have strong confidence that the new graphene coated fabric will be commercially available this year.

Dr. Roman Strauss, Vice President at IRPC, said: “Working together with Haydale, we see a substantial opportunity for a swift development of this product in the short time scales we have set ourselves.”

Keith Broadbent, Haydale CEO, added: “Working with IRPC we are able to quickly react to a current industry requirement. It is great to see that these products are benefiting from our core functionalisation process; particularly the antibacterial nature of the inks and the part they can play in the production of healthcare PPE. With the global PPE requirements continuing to grow, we anticipate this project to be very well received and look forward to seeing this progress to commercialisation.”

Tags:  COVID-19  Graphene  Haydale  Healthcare  IRPC Public Company Limited  Keith Broadbent  Roman Strauss 

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Avanzare’s new headquarter announcement

Posted By Graphene Council, Friday, July 3, 2020
Headquarter two was announced in 2018. The new headquarter of Avanzare Innovacion Tecnologica is a part of its expansion strategy and the scale-up of graphene production. The new headquarter is located on:


Tags:  Avanzare  Graphene 

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Graphene-coated fibres as low-power wearable body temperature sensors

Posted By Graphene Council, Friday, July 3, 2020
A team of scientists from the UK and Portugal has produced graphene-coated polypropylene (PP) fibres that can be used in wearable textiles as temperature sensors. Operating in the range of 30 to 45 oC at voltages as low as 1 V, textiles incorporating these fibres could be used to actively measure body temperature of the wearer.

Fibres with integrated sensing functionality overcome some key issues related to the use of monolithic sensors that are attached to either clothes or skin, such as ease of use and wearer comfort. Moreover, many attachable sensors are not robust against washing, and some require external high-power voltage supplies. The new graphene-PP based solution resolves all these issues, as described in the application-driven work published in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.

PP is a textile fibre material that is strong and transparent, lightweight, eco-friendly and recyclable. The researchers coat PP, an electrical insulator, with graphene to create fibres that are electrically conductive, their resistance changing with temperature. With an outlook for practical device development, the researchers tested two types of graphene that is suitable for mass production, CVD grown and shear exfoliated. The CVD grown graphene exhibited higher sensitivity to temperature, due to its better uniformity. The resistance changes by several percent across temperatures of interest, which is suitable for practical use.

Figure: Graphene on polypropylene fibre temperature sensor – real life use test. Reprinted with permission from ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 26, 29861–29867. Copyright 2020 American Chemical Society.

In order to simulate real-life usage, the novel fibres were tested against bending for up to 1000 cycles and washing in laundry detergent at different temperatures. The devices exhibited excellent stability under all tested conditions. These sensors have potential applications in continuous measurement of human body temperature through integration in garments, or ambient temperature through integration in upholstery.

Tags:  Chemical Vapour Deposition  Graphene  Sensors 

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Modifying graphene to improve composite materials performance

Posted By Graphene Council, Thursday, July 2, 2020

Scientists from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), and Versarien Plc have successfully used graphene to improve the performance of composite materials and have determined how the chemical functionalisation of graphene has an effect via nanoscale imaging of the surface chemistry.

Graphene, a highly desirable material for a variety of applications; in the case of nanocomposites, can be functionalised and added as a nanofiller to alter the ultimate product properties, such as tensile strength. Often the material properties of the functionalised graphene and the location of any chemical species are not known. Consequently, it is not necessarily understood why improvements in product performance are achieved, which hinders the rate of product development.

Through the InnovateUK funded Analysis for Innovators programme, Versarien Plc, a company developing graphene products to help manufacturers improve their products’ functionality, approached NPL. Versarien wanted to explore how modifying their material, trademarked Nanene, could change how the flakes are dispersed in the polymers, and in turn, how this would change the polymer’s properties. Nanene is a graphitic powder containing few-layer graphene (FLG) flakes. It is important for customers to know whether improved dispersion of Nanene in composites will bring added benefits to products made from these enhanced polymers.

NPL applied a wide range of state-of-the-art measurement techniques to characterise the flakes and composites. One particularly novel aspect of the project involved tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) to provide nanoscale resolution of the graphene sample’s structural makeup and view defects within the flakes themselves.

Dr Andrew Pollard, Science Area Leader at NPL, said: “Understanding how the fundamental material properties of commercially-available powders containing few-layer graphene affect the final performance of real-world products, is crucial if these new and innovative applications are to come to market. It is exciting to see how advanced techniques measuring nanoscale properties can reveal the reasons for changes in the macroscale properties of composites.”

NPL’s research, in collaboration with the GEIC at the University of Manchester, the University of Liverpool and the University of Surrey, enabled Versarien to understand the materials at a structural and chemical level. The knowledge and data from this collaborative research benefits ongoing product development, helps provide insight and assurances to new and existing customers.

Versarien are carrying out further research to investigate whether the improved dispersion could yet be harnessed beneficially by making other changes to the chemistry of the graphene flakes.

Dr Stephen Hodge, Head of Research at Versarien, said: “The project gave us access to a very wide range of cutting-edge techniques that are simply not available outside of measurement labs. Particularly in the case of TERS, it was not just the instruments, but the ability to adapt them to our specific problem, which requires extremely high levels of expertise. That we could bring all of these together in one place brought huge benefit to understanding the structure of our product.”

Robin Wilson, Head of Manufacturing & Materials of InnovateUK, said: “The outcome of this A4I (InnovateUK) funded project is an excellent example of how metrology enables innovation.  It has had a far-reaching impact, as it has not only helped a UK company to fine tune their product development but has also resulted in a scientific publication that adds to the understanding of using graphene within the composite community.”

Tags:  Andrew Pollard  Graphene  Innovate UK  nanocomposites  National Physical Laboratory  Robin Wilson  Stephen Hodge  Versarien 

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Global Graphene Group Adds More REACH-Certified Products

Posted By Graphene Council, Thursday, July 2, 2020
Global Graphene Group (G3) has finalized certification for its second and third products with the European Union’s Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). G3’s PS and PDE products join their previously approved PDR products that were REACH certified earlier this year.

G3’s Gi-SL-B series single layer graphene oxide dispersed in water (N002-PS) is now REACH certified. N002-PS contains oxygen-containing chemical groups on the graphene basal plane. It is dispersible in water and available in two standard concentrations at 0.5 wt% and 1 wt%. It possesses polar functional groups and it is electrically and thermally insulating. Potential applications are conductive coatings, wastewater and water filtration, thin films, packaging, biosensors and much more.

G3’s Gi-PW-B050 series few layer graphene oxide powder (N002-PDE) also finalized its REACH certification. N002-PDE is a high-density single layer graphene powders with high oxygen content on its surface, high aspect ratio, and high specific surface area. Potential applications are paints/coatings, composites, defense, military and more.

“Our N002-PDR is the building block for several of our applications including conductive coating and thermal management,” said G3’s Nathan Holliday, Technical Marketing Manager. “Our PDE is a key material in our solutions portfolio for several applications, including paint and coatings, and nano-intermediate solutions.”

“Our team is focused on actively finalizing our REACH certification for our thermal management related products for consumer electronic applications now,” said Holliday.

G3 is registered with REACH under Graphene Oxide to ship 1 to 10 metric tons of its N002-PS and N002-PDE products into the EU annually with C.S.B. GmbH., the only representative for G3 in the EU. The REACH certification for this product secures G3 the right to market the product in Europe.

REACH is a regulation of the European Union, adopted to improve the protection of human health and the environment from the risks that can be posed by chemicals, while enhancing the competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry. It also promotes alternative methods for the hazard assessment of substances in order to reduce the number of tests on animals. REACH establishes procedures for collecting and assessing information on the properties and hazards of substances.

G3 is also a proud member of the REACH graphene consortium, taking an active role in how graphene solutions are handled in Europe.

Tags:  biosensors  Coatings  composites  Global Graphene Group  Graphene  Nathan Holliday  REACH 

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Posted By Graphene Council, Thursday, July 2, 2020
Superheroes squeeze a lump of coal and turn it into a sparkling diamond – in comic books, anyway. There is some scientific validity to this fictional feat. Coal and diamonds are both composed of carbon. The two materials differ in their microscopic arrangement of atoms, and that leads to quite a difference in appearance, conductivity, hardness and other properties.

As this shows, the microstructure of carbon-based materials is important. Optimizing carbon microstructure could benefit applications in energy storage, sensors and next generation nuclear material systems.

Now a group of researchers at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have conducted a study that could lead to improved methods to fine-tune the carbon microstructure. The scientists reported on their work in a June 2020 Materials Today Chemistry paper.

Kunal Mondal, an INL materials science researcher, conducted the group’s experiments, which involved subjecting tiny carbon films and fibers to temperatures as high as 3000o C (5400o F). That heat caused the microstructure in the films and fibers to become less disordered (or amorphous) and more diamondlike (or crystalline).

“When carbon structure gets more crystalline, it makes many things possible. First, conductivity of the carbon increases. That means you can get a lot of good applications out of it,” said Mondal, the paper’s lead author. Some of these applications include batteries and sensors, he added.

A goal of the research was to see how the final microstructure varied depending on the temperature and the starting material.

For the initial material, the researchers spun out miniature carbon fibers and coated substrates with thin carbon films. They heat treated these polymer precursors at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 3000o C. They then examined the results with transmission electron microscopes and other instruments, determining the degree of conversion from a loosely organized polymer to a more structured, crystalline arrangement.

Heat treatments are used worldwide to create carbon composite materials with the desired microstructure, which varies by application. The precursors that researchers selected are also widely used. Yet commercial production with these precursors and manufacturing methods can be an intricate process that requires a series of precise heat treatments and other actions.

The final recipe for a product may be reached by trial and error, which can sometimes be extensive. The INL research aims, among other things, to provide a road map with shortcuts to speed up this search.

So, in addition to experimental work, the INL group also did simulations that modeled how the fibers and films would evolve during heat treatment. Gorakh Pawar, another co-author of the paper and an INL staff scientist in the Department of Material Science and Engineering, handled these simulations. The computer models predicted outcomes that were similar to the experimental results. The work was funded through INL’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

The INL study provides clues that can be used to help design precursors and processes that will yield preferred nanostructures, Pawar said. For instance, starting with a film resulted in higher electron mobility than what resulted when starting from fibers, which could be a consequence of the many boundaries in a fiber and their impact on the free movement of electrons. So, for a sensor or another application where conductivity is important, starting with a film might lead to a device that is more sensitive, is faster or uses less power.

In exploring all the possible combinations of processing steps, researchers at national labs, in industry and elsewhere need to be cost-effective in their investigations and outcomes. Simulations like those done by the INL group can help minimize the time, effort and expense of zeroing in on the right process and starting material.

“You cannot run an experiment forever. You need some guidance to optimize your experimental protocol,” Pawar said.


These batteries have an electrode made of graphite, a form of carbon. In operating the battery, the lithium ions are stored between layers in the graphite, which means the amount of void and defects in the material is important. With graphite of the proper structure, that movement of ions can be rapid, a requirement for extreme fast charging. Yet the graphite materials cannot be so porous that it renders the electrode useless.

Such charging might allow electric vehicles to get the equivalent of a full tank of gasoline within minutes instead of hours. That capability would make operating these emission-free cars and trucks similar to what people are used to with current gas-powered vehicles. This means the INL research project could prove beneficial in figuring out how to achieve that type of performance, a capability consumers seek.

“That’s our future goal in energy storage: how we can optimize this graphite structure,” Pawar said.

To help accomplish that, the researchers continue to expand their understanding of carbon microstructures and how they can be produced. In the end, this work may help create an electric vehicle battery that can reach full charge quickly – or, to put it in superhero terms, faster than a speeding bullet.

Tags:  carbon films  carbon nanofibre  Energy Storage  Graphene  Idaho National Laboratory  Kunal Mondal  Sensors 

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Thomas Swan announce business development partnership with Concrene to take graphene into the concrete market

Posted By Graphene Council, Thursday, July 2, 2020
Thomas Swan & Co. Ltd., one of the UK’s leading independent chemical manufacturers, today announced that they have signed an exclusive agency agreement with Concrene Ltd.

Thomas Swan’s GNP (Graphene Nano Platelet) products have been tested in a number of concrete dispersions by Concrene and have shown compressive strength improvements of greater than 20% with loading of less than 1% by weight. With the introduction of further GNP variants during the coming months, the announcement of this agreement is perfectly timed.

Michael Edwards, Commercial Director – Advanced Materials at Thomas Swan said “we are delighted to be working with Concrene in this exciting partnership. With 8% of the World’s carbon emissions emanating from concrete production, this demonstrates a tangible commitment to our internal goal of achieving Carbon Net Zero by 2030, in addition to carefully expanding our focused application base. The team at Concrene will drive our GNP dispersion options in multiple regions, consolidating our position as a global volume manufacturer of graphene”.

Dr Dimitar Dimov, Founder at Concrene Ltd said “I am grateful to Thomas Swan for this new opportunity and look forward to working with them to bring the patent-protected Concrene® to the global construction market. This new type of concrete, reinforced with graphene on the nanoscale level, is suitable for a range of categories of the UK’s Modern Methods of Construction framework and will address both the government’s decarbonisation strategy and the national house building crisis.”

Tags:  Concrene Ltd  Dimitar Dimov  Graphene  Michael Edwards  nanoplatelets  Thomas Swan 

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Direct Solution Processing of Carbon Nanotubes in Solvent Cocktails

Posted By Graphene Council, Thursday, July 2, 2020
Northwestern Engineering researchers have found new ways to directly solution process carbon nanotubes using just a cocktail of common solvents.

Carbon nanotubes, cylinders made of one or more layers of graphene, are very conductive and strong and can be used as a filler to make polymer plastic materials stronger. Processing them, however, is challenging, because they often come as powders of heavily aggregated nanotubes.

In earlier work, Northwestern Engineering’s Jiaxing Huang found that cresols – an inexpensive, mass-produced simple solvent once used in household cleaners – are very effective for dispersing nanotubes. What wasn’t known was why.

Using spectroscopic studies, Huang’s team has found the answer.

“Cresol forms a charge-transfer complex with carbon nanotubes,” said Huang, professor of materials science and engineering in Northwestern’s McCormick School of Engineering. “This interaction is stabilized in low-dielectric-constant solvents to keep the nanotubes dispersed, but it is destabilized in high-dielectric-constant solvents.

“This means that we now can formulate solvent cocktails that disperse carbon nanotubes, and others that can quickly wash cresols off the nanotubes. And the beauty is that no exotic new solvents are needed – these are all common industrial solvents,” he added.

The study found that volatile compatible solvents, such as n-hexane and chloroform, can be used as the main solvent to formulate fast-evaporating nanotube inks for high-throughput techniques, such as airbrushing, to quickly create continuous and conformal carbon nanotube coatings. Next, incompatible solvents, such as acetone, can help remove residual high-boiling-point cresols without the usual need for heating.

“We now know mechanistically which cresol-‘flavored’ solvent cocktails are good to disperse nanotubes, and we know why,” Huang said. “And we also know what solvents can very easily remove residue cresols. It is a whole-circle technical solution for people thinking about solution processing of carbon nanotubes."

The study “Cresol-Carbon Nanotube Charge-Transfer Complex: Stability in Common Solvents and Implications for Solution Processing” was published July 1 in Matter. PhD student Kevin Chiou is co-author.

There have been numerous recipes to process carbon nanotubes. One previous method dispersed the carbon nanotubes through a chemical reaction to treat the surface with a layer of molecules.

The idea was to chemically graft a functional group (with a solvent-liking chemical structure) on the surface of nanotubes to make them more dispersible in solvents. That made the nanotubes more dispersible, but the process broke down the surface — important to the tube’s integrity.

Another approach required adding a molecule and dispersing agent. That method would theoretically wrap around the nanotube but not graft onto it. The problem with that, however, was that the process contaminates the nanotube material, and after processing, the agents still need removal.

This research builds on earlier work by Huang which discovered a way to disperse carbon nanotubes at unprecedentedly high concentrations without the need for additives or harsh chemical reactions to modify the nanotubes. In that work, Huang found that as the nanotubes’ concentrations increase, the material transitions from a dilute dispersion to a thick paste, then become a free-standing gel, and finally change to a kneadable dough that can be shaped and molded.

Tags:  Carbon Nanotubes  Graphene  Jiaxing Huang  Northwestern Engineering 

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GKN Aerospace joins Graphene@Manchester as Tier 1 partner

Posted By Graphene Council, Thursday, July 2, 2020
GKN Aerospace - one of the world’s leading suppliers of manufacturing to the aerospace industry - is the latest company to join the Graphene Engineering Innovation Centre (GEIC) at The University of Manchester as a Tier 1 partner.

The collaboration will explore multiple areas of graphene application, including the use of graphene in innovative coatings for aerospace applications, and development of new composite materials.

James Baker, CEO of Graphene@Manchester, said: “We are pleased to welcome GKN as our latest Tier 1 partner. My background is in aerospace, so I’m really excited about the potential for a collaboration with such an influential player in the industry.

“GKN supplies products to 90% of the world’s aircraft and engine manufacturers, so we have an opportunity to make a genuine difference to the next generation of lighter, more sustainable aircraft through innovation in 2D materials.”

GKN Aerospace CTO and Head of Strategy Russ Dunn (pictured) said: “The GEIC’s core capabilities and wealth of knowledge in 2D materials and manufacturing make it an excellent partner for GKN Aerospace. It offers a practical path from the development of materials science all the way to industrial application. This includes support to establish new supply chains and collaboration to increase the speed of development, maintaining the UK’s global leadership position in research and development.

“Graphene has the ability to increase the life of products in-service and reduce cost, for example by reducing the need for platinum in fuel cells,” Russ added. “We look forward to working with the University and the local ecosystem to explore commercial applications that meet the growing demand for more sustainable, lighter-weight technology, with increased functionality.”

Partnership model
The Graphene Engineering Innovation Centre (GEIC) is a £60 million, industry-led facility, designed to work in collaboration with commercial partners to create, test and optimise new concepts for delivery to market, along with the processes required for scale up and supply chain integration.

Tier 1 membership of the GEIC offers partners a dedicated laboratory within the GEIC facility, plus access to our unique application labs and specialist equipment, and the chance to work with our academic partners.

Tier 2 membership provides a lower-cost route to rapid feasibility studies, with access to a specific application area, designed for SMEs and start-up companies or larger firms looking to investigate the opportunities for incorporating graphene into their business.

Tags:  Aerospace  GKN Aerospace  Graphene  Graphene Engineering Innovation Centre  James Baker  Russ Dunn 

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Clemson research could lead to therapeutic strategies to combat Alzheimer’s, Type 2 diabetes and other diseases

Posted By Graphene Council, Thursday, July 2, 2020
Understanding how a process works – not just that it does – is a critical step that can provide the framework for practical applications far beyond the lab.

Scientists from the Clemson Nanomaterials Institute (CNI) have discovered the mechanism behind how graphene inhibits the formation of abnormal fibrous protein-rich deposits found in organs and tissues called amyloids that play a deleterious role in several diseases. This discovery could have a profound impact on the future treatment of conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Type 2 diabetes and abdominal aortic aneurysms.

Collaborative research conducted by assistant professor Ramakrishna Podila and Ph.D. candidates Wren Gregory and Bipin Sharma of the College of Science’s department of physics and astronomy was recently published in the journal Biointerphases. The article titled “Interfacial charge transfer with exfoliated graphene inhibits fibril formation in lysozyme amyloid” also included a pair of authors, Longyu Hu and Achyut Raghavendra, who are former Clemson graduate students.

This new study revealed that the interfacial charge transfer interactions between proteins and graphene might be the key. Podila explained that proteins have different conformations.

“Proteins have different structures. They have coils, like the old telephone wire,” he said. “What happens in diseases like Alzheimer’s is these proteins unfold and begin combining with each other and then form plaque. It’s been known for a while that stopping this formation can be helpful in controlling the disease itself.”

Gregory, senior doctoral candidate at CNI, was first author on the paper, which describes how proteins unfold and misform.

“Sometimes internal portions of these proteins that would typically be rolled up inside and not in contact with the surrounding chemical environment can become exposed, which can lead to a host of chemical and physical interactions between neighboring proteins as they bind together, or aggregate,” Gregory explained. “This is how many of these diseases progress – or at least this is what we think is a main contributing factor.”

The team used the protein lysozyme from egg whites as a model protein and used graphene, a one-atom thick layer of carbon with a honeycomb structure, to stop the formation of plaque. Gregory said that graphene is a model material for this kind of research because its structure is simple and purely aromatic. The honeycomb structure and its physiochemical consequences are known as aromaticity in physics and chemistry, which is a key factor in these interactions.

“We can study these interactions in as close to a ‘pure’ environment as possible, versus a more complex material where many different chemical interactions are taking place that can make it difficult to study and discern,” Gregory said. “We looked at how graphene interacted with lysozyme when it was in an amyloidal and fibril forming environment and found out that graphene actually dramatically reduced those fibrils, which we confirmed using spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy.”

“We are not the first ones to show that graphene stops the plaque formation, but the mechanism by which this is happening was unclear,” Podila said. “What we tried to do was not cure the disease, but rather figure out the mechanism for stopping the plaque formation.”

And they succeeded, showing that charge transfer is the key.

“Some of the electrons from graphene are transferred to the proteins and when that happens, we found that the plaque formation stops,” Podila said.

Confirmation that the graphene and proteins were sharing electrons came through different means. The team employed micro Raman spectroscopy, which does not provide a visual picture but does denote a spectroscopic signature for the material. This spectroscopic signature is a special signature of vibrational energy states within a material that denote the available states of its electrons – hence, charge transfer.

“When you hit a material with light, the material vibrates at different frequencies, like a bell ringing with different frequencies,” Podila said, “Raman spectroscopy gives us a glimpse into those different frequencies.”

Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to detect protein unfolding. Atomic Kelvin probe force microscopy, which is a form of atomic force microscopy that also monitors the electrical environment of a surface through a voltage plot, was used to visually map where the charges were moving and further confirm the charge transfer.

“Previously, charge transfer was not considered,” Podila said. “We were able to pinpoint the mechanism. We were able to get down to the details of it using Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We combined three different techniques. For the first time, we were able to observe charge transfer between graphene and amyloids.”

Podila said the research is in its early stages but potentially has far-reaching implications. Other studies have shown graphene to be safe, so future research will build upon this understanding of the mechanism, eventually looking at dosage and which conditions could be treated or prevented.

For now, the work continues. Gregory, who is finishing her studies at Clemson, said one of the most challenging parts of researching at the Nanomaterials Institute is deciding what path to take, since so many are available.

“You can get a lot of different experiences with state-of-the-art equipment and some of the best scientific minds in those fields,” she said.

Tags:  Clemson Nanomaterials Institute  Graphene  Healthcare  Ramakrishna Podila  Wren Gregory 

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