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Light-induced active ion transport in graphene oxide membranes

Posted By Graphene Council, The Graphene Council, Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Updated: Thursday, March 21, 2019

Nanofluidic channels feature a unique unipolar ionic transport when properly designed and constructed. Recent research in nanofluidics has adopted reconstructed layered two-dimensional (2D) sheets – such as graphene oxide or clay – as a promising material platform for nanofluidics. These membranes contain a high volume fraction of interconnected 2D nanochannels.

Compared to other materials used for nanofluidic devices, such as anodized aluminum oxide membrane, block copolymer membrane and nanofluidic crystals, a unique feature of layered membranes is that the channels are horizontally aligned and the channel height (i.e., the spacing between the layers), which is responsible for confinement of the electrolyte, remains uniform throughout the entire thin film.

"However, mass and charge transport in existing membrane materials follows their concentration gradient," Wei Guo, a professor at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, tells Nanowerk. "Attaining anti-gradient transport as effective as natural counterparts remains a great challenge in fully abiotic nanosystems."

In new work led by Guo, reported in Nature Communications ("Photo-induced ultrafast active ion transport through graphene oxide (GO) membranes"), the researchers demonstrate a coupled photon-electron-ion transport phenomenon through graphene oxide membranes.

It shows a straightforward way on how to power the transport in 2D layered materials using the energy of light.
"Using the energy of light, cations are able to move thermodynamically uphill over a broad range of concentrations, at rates orders of magnitude faster than that via simple diffusion," Guo explains. "Based on this mechanism, we developed photonic ion switches, photonic ion diodes, and photonic ion transistors as the fundamental elements for active ion sieving and artificial photosynthesis on synthetic nanofluidic circuits."

This is the first discovery of photo-induced active (anti-gradient) ion transport in 2D layered materials with extraordinarily high pumping rates. It provides a completely new way for remote, non-invasive, and active control of the transport behaviors in synthetic membrane materials.

"Using light to control the mass and charge transportation in fully synthetic membranes is the dream of a materials scientist, like me," says Guo. "As far as I know, many research groups currently are engaged in this field. However, their findings are restricted to use the light as a gate, allowing or prohibiting the transport. In contrast, we use the light as a motive force to realize active transport."

Upon asymmetric light illumination, a net cationic flow through the layered graphene oxide membrane is generated from the non-illuminated region to the illuminated region. This phenomenon is reported for the first time.



Against a concentration gradient, the pumping rates for cations can be five orders of magnitude higher than that via simple diffusion.

The team established a theoretical model and performed molecular dynamics simulations to unveil the mechanism. Light irradiation reduces the local electric potential on the graphene oxide membrane following a carrier diffusion mechanism. When the illumination is applied to an off-center position, an electric potential difference is built across the GO strip that can drive the transport of ionic species.

Superior to existing molecular transport systems, the light-induced active ion transport reported in this work does not rely on lipid or liquid membranes, which significantly improves its robustness and compatibility. In addition, it does not hinge on specific ion-binding shuttle molecules to achieve the transmembrane ion transport. Thus, its transport range can be at the scale of centimeters.

This work provides a new route for remote, non-invasive, and active control of the transport behaviors in synthetic membrane materials. It demonstrates a way to fabricate innovative membrane materials for active ionic sieving, artificial photosynthesis, and modular computation on integrated nanofluidic circuits.

Following the mechanism proposed in this work, as shown in the figure below, the researchers constructed photonic ion switches (PIS), photonic ion diodes (PID), and photonic ion transistors (PIT) as the fundamental elements for light-controlled nanofluidic circuits.



"So far in our lab, the photo-induced active ion transport systems has been developed to the third generation," notes Guo. "The photo-induced active ion transport phenomenon can be also found in almost the whole family of 2D semiconductors. There is tremendous room to further exploit their unique photo-responsiveness in liquid processable colloidal 2D materials. The present work opens up exciting new possibilities."

"Now, we are trying to amplify the generation of photocurrent and voltage, and scale up the membrane materials with, for example, printing techniques," he concludes. "Also, we intend to further extend the scope of the materials with which the active transport behaviors can take place."

Tags:  2D materials  Beijing  Chinese Academy of Sciences  Graphene  graphene oxide  photonics  Wei Guo 

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New research uses graphene sensors to detect ultralow concentrations of NO2

Posted By Graphene Council, The Graphene Council, Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Updated: Wednesday, April 10, 2019
The research, as published in ACS Sensors, was led by an international collaboration of scientists from Linköping University, Chalmers University of Technology, Royal Holloway, University of London and the University of Surrey.

The findings demonstrate why single-layer graphene should be used in sensing applications and opens doors to new technology for use in environmental pollution monitoring, new portable monitors and automotive and mobile sensors for a global real-time monitoring network.

As part of the research, graphene-based sensors were tested in conditions resembling the real environment we live in and monitored for their performance. The measurements included, combining NO2, synthetic air, water vapor and traces of other contaminants, all in variable temperatures, to fully replicate the environmental conditions of a working sensor.

Key findings from the research showed that, although the graphene-based sensors can be affected by co-adsorption of NO2 and water on the surface, at about room temperature, their sensitivity to NO2 increased significantly when operated at elevated temperatures, 150 °C. This shows graphene sensitivity to different gases can be tuned by performing measurements at different temperatures.

Testing also revealed a single-layer graphene exhibits two times higher carrier concentration response upon exposure to NO2 than bilayer graphene — demonstrating single-layer graphene as a desirable material for sensing applications.

Christos Melios, a lead scientist on the project from NPL, said: “Evaluating the sensor performance in conditions resembling the real environment is an essential step in the industrialisation process for this technology.

“We need to be able to clarify everything from cross-sensitivity, drift in analysis conditions and recovery times, to potential limitations and energy consumption, if we are to provide confidence and consider usability in industry.”

By developing these very small sensors and placing them in key pollution hotspots, there is a potential to create a next-generation pollution map – which will be able to pinpoint the source of pollution earlier, in unprecedented detail, outlining the chemical breakdown of data in high resolution in a wide variety of climates.

Christos continued: “The use of graphene into these types of gas sensors, when compared to the standard sensors used for air emissions monitoring, allows us to perform measurements of ultra-low sensitivity while employing low cost and low energy consumption sensors. This will be desirable for future technologies to be directly integrated into the Internet of Things.”

NO2 typically enters the environment through the burning of fuel, vehicle emissions, power plants, and off-road equipment. Extreme exposure to NO2 can increase the chances of respiratory infections and asthma. Long-term exposure can cause chronic lung disease and is linked to pollution related death across the world.  

Figures from the European Environment Agency also links NO2 pollution to premature deaths in the UK, with the UK being ranked as having the second highest number of annual deaths in Europe. In 2014, 14,050 deaths in the UK were recorded as being NO2 pollution related, 5,900 of which were recorded in London alone1.

When interacted with water and other chemicals, NO2 can also form into acid rain, which severely damages sensitive ecosystems, such as lakes and forests.

Existing legislation from the European Commission suggests hourly exposure to NO2 concentration should not be exceeded by more than 200 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) or ~106 parts per billion (ppb), and no more than 18 times annually. This translates to an annual mean of 40 mg m3 (~21 ppb) NO2 concentration2

In central London, for example, the average NO2 concentration for 2017 showed concentration levels of NO2 ranged from 34.2 to 44.1 ppb per month, a huge leap from the yearly average.

These figures show there is an urgent need for a low-cost solution to mitigate the impact of NO2 in the air around us. This work could provide the answer to early detection and prevention of these types of pollutants, in line with the government’s Clean Air Strategy.

Further experimentation in this area could see the graphene-based sensors introduced into industry within the next 2–5 years, providing an unprecedented level of understanding of the presence of NO2 in our air.

Tags:  Chalmers University of Technology  Christos Melios  Graphene  Linköping University  National Physical Laboratory  Royal Holloway  Sensors  University of London  University of Surrey 

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Graphene and 2D Materials on Track to Innovative Applications

Posted By Graphene Council, The Graphene Council, Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Updated: Wednesday, April 10, 2019

The CORDIS Results Pack showcases 12 articles on 6 ambitious cutting-edge EU research projects funded under the EU’s FP7 and Horizon 2020 research programmes relevant to graphene and 2D materials. Of these, seven articles cover different aspects of the Graphene Flagship. 


The Graphene Flagship is the EU’s biggest research initiative and has a budget of EUR 1 billion, representing a new form of joint, coordinated research initiative on an unprecedented scale. Through a combined academic-industrial consortium, the research effort covers the entire value chain, from materials production to components and system integration, aiming to exploit the unique properties of graphene. 

An introduction to graphene outlines work conducted by the Flagship including collaboration with the European Space Agency over the use of graphene in space applications such as light propulsion and thermal management. Researchers also used optoelectronic communication systems to provide fast data for the future. The large-scale production of graphene for commercial market applications involved scaling up manufacturing to industrial scale whilst maintaining consistency high quality and cost efficiency.

Scientists investigated chemical processing and functional applications of graphene and graphene-related materials for engineering new molecular structures with unique properties. Graphene spintronics utilised both electron charge and spin at room temperature to create new possibilities for information processing and storage. Finally the Flagship has investigated the use of graphene for biomedical applications to develop innovative medical devices and sensors for detecting treating and managing nervous system diseases. 

European graphene research doesn’t all fall under the remit of the Flagship and researchers are using other EU funding mechanisms to undertake other projects. GRAPHEALTH produced the next generation of wearable sensors while GRASP applied interactions between graphene and light to quantum computing and biomedicine. GraTA developed tunneling accelerometers for use in machine vibration monitoring. HIGRAPHEN created dense polymer composites for use in optoelectronics and energy storage. PolyGraph (working closely with the Graphene Flagship) studied graphene-reinforced polymers for use in the aeronautics and automobiles sectors.

Tags:  2D materials  Cordis  Graphene  Medical  The Graphene Flagship 

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First Graphene receives R&D refund

Posted By Graphene Council, The Graphene Council, Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Updated: Tuesday, April 2, 2019
First Graphene is pleased to advise it has received a Research and Development refund of over $680,000.

The refund will supplement the Company’s working capital as it advances its graphene commercialisation strategies.

First Graphene is a leading supplier of high-quality, bulk graphene products and is a Tier 1 partner at the Graphene Engineering and Innovation Centre (GEIC), Manchester, UK.

Tags:  Bulk Graphene Pricing Report  First Graphene  Graphene  Graphene Engineering and Innovation Centre 

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Future Ready: The Graphene Innovators

Posted By Graphene Council, The Graphene Council, Saturday, April 6, 2019
Updated: Tuesday, April 2, 2019

When the material graphene, which earned two University of Manchester scientists the Nobel Prize in Physics, exploded onto the research scene in 2004, many thought it was destined to change the world. Bulletproof armour and space elevators, super-antibiotics and rust-proof vehicles were only a few of the imagined applications of graphene, some of which are in development. However, realizing the full impact of the two-dimensional form of carbon carries as much promise as it does challenges.

As people around the globe race to solve the riddle of taking this emerging technology to market, researchers in the lab of McGill Professor Thomas Szkopek had a wave—a sound wave—of inspiration.

Innovation by Example

Szkopek devotes much of his research activity to exploring and exploiting 2D atomic crystals and he is especially curious about graphene. In his Nanoelectronic Devices and Materials lab, he and his students often have impromptu discussions about possible applications for graphene and how they could be developed. “Most of the ideas are bad – but that process is how good ideas get started,” he says. 

Szkopek has always been interested in solving science problems. He looks to his family for the source of his perseverance in the face of challenges. “I inherited a hard work ethic and tolerance for failure. You learn more from your failures than your successes, if you take the time to think about why things failed."

In the lab, he models this determination and inquisitiveness with the goal of fostering innovation—new ideas for problems new or old—and cross-disciplinary solutions. “My job is to allow students to reach their potential and encourage their curiosity. I give students freedom to ask their own questions and pursue their own good ideas. I want to get them out of the mode of being consumers of knowledge and turn them into producers of knowledge.”

He also uses his scientific connections with a diverse network of key players—collaborators from different disciplines, experts in transferring technology from lab to industry, and possible funders—to help students translate and apply new knowledge into practical devices with commercial potential that could benefit society and have a positive impact on people’s daily lives.



As a graduate student at UCLA before arriving at McGill in 2006, Szkopek was encouraged to ask probing physics questions and find practical engineering solutions to difficult problems by his Ph.D. supervisor, electrical engineering professor and physicist Eli Yablonovitch. Szkopek’s mentor introduced a factor that describes light-trapping phenomena, referred to as the “4n2 limit”, which is now used worldwide in almost all commercial solar panels. Yablonovitch was awarded a McGill Honourary Degree in 2018.

“I learned a lot from Eli about trying to reduce problems to their core and asking deep questions about physical limits. I shared an interest in applying physics to technological problems, which is closer to the engineering frontier where things aren’t figured out yet. If you ask good questions, you often find interesting answers. The key is to never lose your curiosity.”

The deep question always at the top of his mind: how to harness the potential of graphene?

A sound idea

During one scientific discussion in the lab, Peter Gaskell, a Ph.D. student who was working with Szkopek on developing lithium-ion batteries made with graphene-treated anodes for electric vehicles, proposed a novel idea about using graphene oxide for an acoustic application: to improve sound quality by using the material in a microphone.

While later sharing a beer with his brother Eric Gaskell, who was doing a Ph.D. in sound engineering at McGill’s Schulich School of Music, Peter floated his idea about graphene and graphene oxide’s mechanical properties and potential application in sound amplification.

Eric, who had worked for Audio Engineering Associates (AEA) in California building ribbon microphones for high-performance studio recording and has been a recording engineer at the Aspen Music Festival, was excited and intrigued. He agreed that graphene oxide might be an ideal material for acoustic membranes in ribbon microphones to enhance sound quality. Its high stiffness could potentially produce better sound with less distortion, while the low-density and lightness could lead to greater energy efficiency.

Peter again pitched the idea to Szkopek and his lab mates. “We couldn’t find any obvious holes in the idea, so we thought it should work,” says Szkopek. The Gaskell brothers proceeded to design, develop and build a graphene oxide membrane for ribbon microphones in his lab.

Szkopek’s initial endorsement and support of the idea, along with access to his lab space, specialized equipment, guidance and expertise in graphene, were invaluable: “Thomas’ enthusiasm for the idea allowed us to take it to the next level,” says Eric.

They successfully created a prototype acoustic membrane for ribbon microphones formed from ultra-thin, flat sheets of graphene oxide-based material, which markedly improved sound quality.

Szkopek encouraged them to explore commercializing the invention.

To start them on their way, Szkopek called Derrick Wong, a Technology Transfer Manager in McGill’s Office of Innovation and Partnerships.

“A key trait for researchers who work with our Office is to be very collaborative, like Thomas”, says Wong. “His personality is to encourage his students to explore and lead, and he provides them with guidance and a skill set.”

Impressed, Wong cautioned that the specific application wasn’t likely to attract funding from investors. “The prototype was cool, but the market for high-end microphones is very limited,” he says.

They discussed other possible applications that could expand the market for graphene oxide membrane technology, including loudspeakers for headphones, a $1.6 billion USD market.

Pivotal prototype funding

The Faculty of Engineering saw the potential of this idea and raised money from donors that enabled Szkopek to develop and pursue it with an Innovation Award for $7,000. “That funding was crucial because it allowed us to hire a summer student to work on developing a prototype for headphones. We didn’t need a million dollars, just thousands,” he says.

Electrical engineering undergraduate Raed Abdo helped devise techniques to form the graphene-based material into cone-shaped loudspeaker membranes for headphones, rather than flat acoustic membranes for microphones.

This turned out to be crucial for attracting investors.
Wong had identified TandemLaunch, a Montreal-based business incubator that specializes in creating start-ups from university research and has strong connections in the consumer electronics and audio industries, as an ideal potential early-stage investor.

He called Tandem and said: “You have to see this prototype.” Four people met with the invention team in Szkopek’s lab and sampled the graphene-based headphones. “They listened and went ‘Wow!’”

Eric would carry the invention forward as an entrepreneur-in-residence, who receives business mentorship, guidance and support in building a technology company. Szkopek would be technical advisor and, as a world-leading graphene scientist, build confidence with investors.

Gaskell joined the incubator in 2016, where he assembled a co-founding team for Ora Graphene Audio, which includes business lead Ari Pinkas and materials lead Sergii Tutashkonko. The start-up received seed funding to develop and commercialize the technology, along with valuable mentoring and infrastructure support. To date, Ora has raised $1 million through Kickstarter and is working closely with several of the biggest consumer electronics brands to develop graphene-based loudspeakers for the audio industry and graphene-based micro speakers for laptops, tablets and cell phones.

Pushing biosensing limits

After Ora’s launch, Szkopek turned his sights to another challenge. He and electrical engineering Ph.D. student Ibrahim Fakih began to explore the potential of graphene’s electronic properties to design and develop a large area, graphene-based field effect transistor for high-precision sensing of ions in water.

“I had been wondering,” says Szkopek, “how could you design a graphene transistor to improve performance in sensing things? Is there an advantage to using graphene and how could you realize that advantage?”

“This device improves the minimum pH detection limits by 20 times over current silicon transistor and glass electrode sensors at a much lower cost. Making the transistor physically larger makes it quieter,” explains Szkopek, who worked with Wong to identify a promising application for commercialization.

Fakih, Szkopek and Abdo co-founded UltraSense, a company that aims to improve water quality monitoring with low-cost, graphene-based sensors.

UltraSense won a 2018 McGill Dobson Cup Award for $10,000 and McGill EngInE prize for $5,000. “Water quality is incredibly important, and I’m excited about the local and global possibilities. Imagine a network of sensors continuously feeding data that gives you the levels of contaminants in water and a map in real time,” says Szkopek.

He recently initiated a collaboration with McGill chemical engineering professor Viviane Yargeau, a leading water quality researcher. “We plan to work with her to test how well the technology functions in a real outdoor environment.”

Seeing is believing

The path from curiosity-driven invention to practical, commercial innovation opens the door to dynamic entrepreneurial and employment opportunities for McGill students and graduates who train and do research. Ora inspired more engineering students in Szkopek’s lab to pursue their entrepreneurial ambitions.

“Ora was an idea and it turned into a new technology company that employs people. That encourages students to go for it. They see that what they do in the lab can turn into something people use in their daily life,” Szkopek says. “This innovation is all being driven by encouraging students’ curiosity, and by providing the resources and environment so they can develop their ideas. The world is changing and there are now more opportunities for students and graduates to build or contribute to their own start-up companies. The future is in their hands.”

Tags:  2D materials  biosensors  Eli Yablonovitch  Eric Gaskell  Graphene  McGill University  nanomaterials  Peter Gaskell  Thomas Szkopek 

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Graphene and the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority in the UK

Posted By Graphene Council, The Graphene Council, Friday, April 5, 2019
Updated: Friday, April 5, 2019

Emerging technologies such as graphene are being investigated by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in the UK for their potential to improve decommissioning of nuclear sites.

The Challenge

To identify how graphene, an emerging technology, could improve delivery of NDA’s mission.

The Solution

Review the properties of graphene including the latest developments and areas for potential deployment.

Technology Review : Graphene – a form of carbon consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice with unique chemical and physical properties.

Expected Benefits: Raising awareness of new emerging technology across the NDA Group and supply chain.

The NDA published a report on its findings and research over the period of 2016 - 2018: "Graphene and its use in nuclear decommissioning", produced in collaboration with NSG Environmental, the University of Manchester and the National Physical Laboratory

Highlights:

Graphene’s chemical and physical properties are unique:

- one of the thinnest but also strongest materials

- conducts heat better than all other materials

- conducts electricity

- is optically transparent but so dense that it is impermeable to gases

Developments in graphene-based technology have been rapid in a number of areas, including advanced electronics, water filtration and high-strength materials. NDA identified graphene as an emerging technology that could be useful to improve delivery of its mission.

NDA carried out a technology review to compare the properties and potential uses of graphene against the challenges facing the UK in decommissioning its earliest nuclear sites. The opportunities identified included:

  • Advanced materials: Graphene-doped materials could help to immobilise nuclear wastes.
  • Composites incorporating graphene could be used in the construction of stronger buildings or containers for storing nuclear materials.
  • Cleaning up liquid wastes: Graphene-based materials could absorb or filter radioactive elements, helping to clean up spills or existing radioactive wastes.
  • Sensors: Graphene in sensors could improve the detection of radiation or monitor for the signs of corrosion in containers.
  • Batteries: Graphene could produce smaller, longer-lasting batteries that would enable robots to operate for longer in contaminated facilities.

NDA also assessed the potential limitations in graphene’s use to provide a balanced assessment.

The issues identified included:
- cost
- scale-up
- environmental concerns
- lack of standardization
- knowledge regarding radiation tolerance

The report was shared with technical experts across the NDA group, published online and summarised in the Nuclear Institute’s journal: Nuclear Futures. As the technology moves on from early-stage research, NDA and its businesses are continuing to monitor developments, such as the recently opened Graphene Engineering and Innovation Centre (GEIC), with the aim of supporting graphene-based technologies and accelerating their uptake within the nuclear decommissioning sector.

NDA is progressing further projects investigating the potential of other emerging technologies. Engagement continues with academia and industry to identify innovations that could improve delivery of the mission.

Tags:  Andre Geim  Batteries  Graphene  Graphite  Konstantin Novoselov  Sensors  University of Manchester 

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First Graphene to Participate in Global Graphene Industrial Events

Posted By Graphene Council, The Graphene Council, Friday, April 5, 2019
Updated: Thursday, April 4, 2019

First Graphene, is pleased to announce it will be attending key industry events in April and May, including the IDTechEx Show in Berlin on 10th and 11th April 2019 and the American Graphene Summit in Washington DC on 21st and 22nd May 2019. Attendance of these conferences is integral to the marketing campaign elevating the Company’s presence and underlining its ability to supply industry with high quality PureGRAPH™ in tonnage volumes. 

First Graphene will showcase their industry-leading range of PureGRAPH™ graphene products and demonstrate the progress made with industrial-scale customers in composite and elastomer applications. 

IDTechEx Show, 10-11 April 2019, Berlin 

Dr Andy Goodwin (Chief Technology Officer) and Paul Ladislaus (Senior Process Engineer) will attend the exhibition. Andy Goodwin will also give a presentation at the conference titled “Delivering the Graphene Revolution”.

First Graphene will provide an update on the characterisation of PureGRAPH™ which confirms the excellent quality of these low defect, high aspect ratio, few layer graphene products and how these technical features enhance the properties of polymer composites. The latest examples of commercially adopted applications will be reviewed together with an update on the regulatory status of the PureGRAPH™ product range. The Company will also display table top examples of graphene adoption in industrial applications. 

The IDTechEx Show covers a number of high-growth emerging technologies, providing insight on the applications and latest technical and market progress of each. 

Craig McGuckin, Managing Director First Graphene Ltd commented “Attending these events is part of our ongoing programme to introduce First Graphene to target markets and in the case of the Graphene Summit to support the global growth of the graphene
industry”.

Tags:  Andy Goodwin  Craig McGuckin  First Graphene  Graphene  Neil Armstrong  Paul Ladislaus 

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Cardea Bio Announces New Partnership with Nanosens Innovations

Posted By Graphene Council, The Graphene Council, Friday, April 5, 2019
Updated: Thursday, April 4, 2019
Cardea Bio, leading manufacturer of commercial-quality graphene digital biosensors, together with Nanosens Innovations, introduces the new CRISPR-Chip which has the potential to detect genetic mutations within minutes. The relationship with Nanosens falls under Cardea's Innovation Partnership Program, which enables Nanosens to build breakthrough science on top of Cardea's IP-protected graphene biosensors.

The co-developed CRISPR-Chip is the first unamplified label-free nucleic acid testing device. Details about its development can be found in the recently published Nature Biomedical Engineering paper, "Detection of Unamplified Target Genes via CRISPR/Cas9 Immobilized on a Graphene Field-Effect Transistor," from the Keck Graduate Institute at Claremont College.

CRISPR-Chip inventor and corresponding author Dr. Kiana Aran explains, "I first considered using CRISPR-Cas9 on a digital biosensor as a DNA search engine while I was at UC Berkeley. At Keck, I attempted to design and develop the biosensors myself, but it was difficult to construct them with the consistency and quality needed for this research. When I understood that a partnership with Cardea was possible, where the company's patented, commercial-grade, high-volume graphene biosensors could be used in place of building my own, it cut months to years out of my research."

CRISPR-Chip is a hand-held device that combines thousands of CRISPR molecules with Cardea's graphene transistor. The device scans though applied DNA to find specific genes or mutations. The transistor is extremely sensitive to electrically charged materials, like DNA. If the specified DNA is found, it binds to the surface, creating an additional charge which is sensed by the device.

"In its current format, CRISPR-Chip can be used to help researchers design better CRISPR complexes for gene editing," continues Dr. Aran. "With CRISPR-Chip, the complexes can be tested faster than ever before."

Tags:  Biosensor  Cardea Bio  DNA  Graphene  Keck Graduate Institute at Claremont College  Kiana Aran  Nanosens Innovations 

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Surwon Technology to Mothball Tire Project

Posted By Graphene Council, The Graphene Council, Thursday, April 4, 2019
Hong Kong-based graphene pioneer, Surwon Technology says it has decided to discontinue its efforts to make a commercially-available graphene-enhanced road-legal tire blaming its decision on what it called the “prohibitive” price level it would sell for if launched.

The project’s termination comes weeks after the company revealed that, in a heavily-tested configuration, a road tire sized for a typical high performance sports saloon would potentially retail at more than US$1,900. At the time, the company said a lower concentration of the graphene compound that had performed so well in testing would reduce the price point but also, potentially, have an adverse effect on the tire’s performance.

Surwon Technology’s Chief Technology Officer said the company could not rule out revisiting the project at some point in the future but for the time being, it would focus on other matters.

“For a time there, it was even more exciting than usual here at Surwon Technology. The testing of the race variant was phenomenal and, while we learned so much, we just weren’t able to make the transition to a viable road tire that didn’t cost the earth,” he said.

“We’ll close this chapter but there is every chance that, at some point down the road, we’ll be able to reopen the book and give it the ending it so thoroughly deserves,” he concluded.

Surwon Technology’s CTO reiterated that the intellectual property associated with the graphene/rubber compound is not up for sale at this time but he said it was unlikely the company would rule out a sale if an appropriate offer was made.

Tags:  Graphene  Surwon Technology  Tires 

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ISO Publishes Standard on Matrix of Properties and Measurement Techniques for Graphene and Related 2D Materials

Posted By Graphene Council, The Graphene Council, Tuesday, April 2, 2019
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standard ISO/TR 19733:2019, “Nanotechnologies — Matrix of properties and measurement techniques for graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials.”  ISO states that since graphene was discovered in 2004, it has become one of the most attractive materials in application research and device industry due to its supreme material properties such as mechanical strength, stiffness and elasticity, high electrical and thermal conductivity, and optical transparency.  

According to ISO, it is expected that applications of graphene could replace many of the current device development technology in flexible touch panel, organic light emitting diode (OLED), solar cell, supercapacitor, and electromagnetic shielding.  To gain deeper understanding of the material properties and to find ways to mass produce with fine quality, universities, research institutes, and laboratories are researching graphene and similarly related 2D materials.  

To lead these revolutionary materials to full commercialization, however, it is essentially demanded that characterization and measurement techniques for important material properties need to be standardized and globally recognized. In the standard, characterization and measurement techniques for particular properties of graphene and related 2D materials that need to be standardized are organized in a form of a matrix.  ISO suggests that the matrix could serve as an initial guide for developing the necessary international standards in characterization and measurements of graphene and related 2D materials.

Tags:  2D materials  Graphene 

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