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Global Graphene Group Adds Second REACH-Certified Product

Posted By Graphene Council, Friday, March 20, 2020
Global Graphene Group (G3) has finalized certification for its second product with the European Union’s Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

G3’s Gi-PW-B050 (N002-PDR), a high-density single layer of graphene oxide with low oxygen content on its surface and high surface area, has achieved the REACH certification. G3 is registered with REACH to ship one to 10 metric tons of its N002-PS product into the EU annually with C.S.B. GmbH., the only representative for G3 in the EU. The REACH certification for this product secures G3 the right to market the product in Europe.

REACH is a regulation of the European Union, adopted to improve the protection of human health and the environment from the risks that can be posed by chemicals, while enhancing the competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry. It also promotes alternative methods for the hazard assessment of substances in order to reduce the number of tests on animals. REACH establishes procedures for collecting and assessing information on the properties and hazards of substances.

G3 is also a proud member of the REACH graphene consortium, taking an active role in how graphene solutions are handled in Europe.

“The addition of this product being REACH certified will help us ramp up our business in Europe,” said Adam Quirk, Global President of Taiwan Graphene Company for G3. “I’m proud of our team’s continued work and focus to get more of our products REACH certified.”

Tags:  Adam Quirk  environment  Global Graphene Group  Graphene  graphene oxide 

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'White graphene' aerogel material creates pleasant laser light

Posted By Graphene Council, Friday, March 20, 2020
With a porosity of 99.99 %, it consists practically only of air, making it one of the lightest materials in the world: Aerobornitride is the name of the material developed by an international research team led by Kiel University. The scientists assume that they have thereby created a central basis for bringing laser light into a broad application range.

Based on a boron-nitrogen compound, they developed a special three-dimensional nanostructure that scatters light very strongly and hardly absorbs it. Irradiated with a laser, the material emits uniform lighting, which, depending on the type of laser, is much more efficient and powerful than LED light. Thus, lamps for car headlights, projectors or room lighting with laser light could become smaller and brighter in the future.

The research team presents their results in Nature Communications ("Conversionless efficient and broadband laser light diffusers for high brightness illumination applications").

More light in the smallest space

In research and industry, laser light has long been considered the “next generation” of light sources that could even exceed the efficiency of LEDs (light-emitting diode).

“For very bright or a lot of light, you need a large number of LEDs and thus space. But the same amount of light could also be obtained with a single laser diode that is one-thousandth smaller,” Dr. Fabian Schütt emphasizes the potential.

The materials scientist from the working group "Functional Nanomaterials" at Kiel University is the first author of the study, which involves other researchers from Germany, England, Italy, Denmark and South Korea.

Powerful small light sources allow numerous applications. The first test applications, such as in car headlights, are already available, but laser lamps have not yet become widely accepted. On the one hand, this is due to the intense, directed light of the laser diodes. On the other hand, the light consists of only one wavelength, so it is monochromatic. This leads to an unpleasant flickering when a laser beam hits a surface and is reflected there.

Porous structure scatters the light extremely strongly

“Previous developments to laser light normally work with phosphors. However, they produce a relatively cold light, are not stable in the long term and are not very efficient,” says Professor Rainer Adelung, head of the working group.

The research team in Kiel is taking a different approach: They developed a highly scattering nanostructure of hexagonal boron nitride, also known as "white graphene", which absorbs almost no light. The structure consists of a filigree network of countless fine hollow microtubes. When a laser beam hits these, it is extremely scattered inside the network structure, creating a homogeneous light source.

"Our material acts more or less like an artificial fog that produces a uniform, pleasant light output," explains Schütt. The strong scattering also contributes to the fact that the disturbing flickering is no longer visible to the human eye.

The nanostructure not only ensures that the material withstands the intense laser light, but can also scatter different wavelengths. Red, green and blue laser light can be mixed in order to create specific color effects in addition to normal white - for example, for use in innovative room lighting. Here, extremely lightweight laser diodes could lead to completely new design concepts in the future.

"However, in order to compete with LEDs in the future, the efficiency of laser diodes must be improved as well," says Schütt. The research team is now looking for industrial partners to take the step from the laboratory to application.

Wide range of applications for aeromaterials

Meanwhile the researchers from Kiel can use their method to develop highly porous nanostructures for different materials, besides boron nitride also graphene or graphite. In this way, more and more new, lightweight materials, so-called “aeromaterials”, are created, which allow particularly innovative applications. For example, the scientists are currently doing research in collaboration with companies and other universities to develop self-cleaning air filters for aircraft.

Tags:  Aerobornitride  Fabian Schütt  Graphene  Kiel University  nanomaterials  photonics  Rainer Adelung 

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NanoXplore Inc. Announces $25,000,000 Bought Deal Private Placement

Posted By Graphene Council, Wednesday, March 18, 2020
NanoXplore Inc. is pleased to announce that it has entered into an agreement with Echelon Wealth Partners Inc. to purchase, on a bought deal private placement basis, 19,230,800  Common Shares of the Company at a price of $1.30 per Common Share for gross proceeds of approximately $25,000,000.

The Offering will be conducted by a syndicate of underwriters led by Echelon as sole bookrunner. The Company has granted the Underwriter an option (the "Underwriters' Option") to purchase up to an additional 20% of the Common Shares sold under the Offering, at the Issue Price. The Underwriters' Option may be exercised in whole or in part to purchase Common Shares upon written notice to the Company at any time up to 48 hours prior to theclosing date of the Offering.

The Company intends to use the net proceeds of the Offering to support sales and marketing of graphene, research initiatives particularly related to the use of graphene in Li-Ion batteries, U.S. expansion, working capital and general corporate purposes.

The Company has agreed to grant the Underwriter a cash commission payable on the closing date of the Offering equal to 5% of the aggregate gross proceeds of the Offering (including the Underwriters' Option), other than in respect of Common Shares subscribed for by certain investors (the President's List), in which case the Company shall pay the Underwriter a cash commission equal to 2% of such amount.

The Offering will be completed (i) by way of a private placement exemption in all of the provinces and territories of Canada, (ii) on a private placement basis in the United States pursuant to exemptions from the registration requirements of the United States Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "U.S. Securities Act") and (iii) outside Canada and the United States on a basis which does not require the qualification or registration of any of the Company's securities under domestic or foreign securities laws.

This news release does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to sell any of securities in the United States. The securities have not been and will not be registered under the U.S. Securities Act or any state securities laws and may not be offered or sold within the United States or to U.S. Persons unless registered under the U.S. Securities Act and applicable state securities laws or an exemption from such registration is available.

The Offering is expected to close on or about April 8, 2020 or such other date as the Company and Echelon may agree, and is subject to certain closing conditions, including the approval of the securities regulatory authorities and the TSX Venture Exchange.

Tags:  Echelon Wealth Partners  Graphene  Li-Ion batteries  NanoXplore 

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CAME and Applied Graphene Materials strengthen engagement in Italian coatings market

Posted By Graphene Council, Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Following the signing of a distribution agreement in 2019 with CAME srl in Italy, Applied Graphene Materials (AGM) visited the international chemical distribution business in February 2020. As part of AGM’s commitment to excellence in customer service and to supporting our developing distributor network with effective technical know-how, Andy Gent, Commercial Director and Lynn Chikosha, Coatings Development Manager, met with Verena Cepperulo, General Manager and her team.

The week-long visit in February saw CAME arrange several new customer meetings from the coatings, adhesives and lubricants markets. Discussions focused around the progress CAME and their customers are making with AGM's graphene additives.

Lynn Chikosha, Coatings Development Manager commented: We reviewed AGM’s latest results in barrier and anti-corrosion coatings applications and with the help of CAME strengthened our engagement with customers from the last visit before engaging with a number of new customers. The team at CAME had lined up some really exciting potential customers where they see alignment with our graphene and its applications. Looking forward to lots of exciting collaborations in the future! As always, the team at CAME were excellent hosts.

Andy Gent, Commercial Director commented: I think it is fair to say that the collaboration between AGM and CAME is going from strength to strength. Following the successful launch of our partnership during 2019, we have started 2020 with a huge amount of interest from within the Italian market. Our colleagues at CAME have been able to identify a significant number of exciting project opportunities with a key focus on our graphene’s outstanding barrier properties. I am very much looking forward to seeing how these projects develop.

Tags:  Andy Gent  Applied Graphene Materials  CAME srl  coatings  Graphene  Lynn Chikosha  Verena Cepperulo 

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OAS and 2-DTech sign collaboration agreement

Posted By Graphene Council, Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Oxford Advanced Surfaces (OAS) a pioneer and market leader in the surface treatment of polymeric, plastic and composite materials by the application of highly reactive carbene chemistry has entered into a collaboration agreement with 2-DTech Limited, a subsidiary of Versarien plc.

The aim is to develop a new range of products that incorporate nano-materials, such as graphene,  into OAS’s proprietary Onto™ chemistry platform to deliver enhanced mechanical performance and improved electrical and thermal conductivity.

OAS’s patented Onto™ chemistry platform delivers a range of versatile and reliable chemical surface treatments that are used to improve the adhesion of paints, coatings and adhesives to composite materials and engineering plastics. Current Onto™ products are used in demanding applications ranging from transportation and aerospace to wind energy.

By combining 2-DTechs graphene products into OAS’s unique OntoTM chemistry the collaboration is intended to produce a range of new products that potentially will allow both companies to address a wide range of applications and address new materials challenges encountered in both our current and potentially new markets.

Dr Jon-Paul Griffiths, Chief Technology Officer, Oxford Advanced Surfaces said: “Challenging applications for new and existing materials require innovative surface treatments; through our collaboration with 2-Dtech we have the opportunity to develop new products by incorporating nano-materials, such as graphene, to meet these challenges.”

Steve Hodge, Versarien Chief Technology Officer, commented: “We are delighted and very excited to work collaboratively with OAS; our aqueous GraphinksTM and OAS’ aqueous based adhesion promoters (OntoTM) are a natural fit and can bring about unique opportunities and markets that we haven’t yet explored.”

Tags:  Aerospace  Graphene  Jon-Paul Griffiths  nanomaterials  Oxford Advanced Surfaces  Steve Hodge  Versarien 

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Mayor visits Teesside firm distributing 'Super Material' across the globe

Posted By Graphene Council, Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Applied Graphene Materials plc, (AGM) based at The Wilton Centre in Redcar, is a leading innovator in the manufacture and application of graphene powder, a form of carbon, which can have transformational performance when added to other materials.

During his visit, Mayor Houchen was able to see first-hand the manufacturing of high-performance graphene materials which are being produced here in the Tees Valley, and he also learnt more about some of the commercial projects the firm is pursuing.

The firm also has sales desks in UK, Kentucky and Oklahoma and has recently secured several new distributors, signing agreements with firms in Italy, Japan, China and South Africa.

AGM uses the materials it manufactures to assist customers across a range of sectors who are producing graphene enhanced products. The Company has a primary focus on anti-corrosion primers and coatings, such as a recently customer-launched liquid coating roofing system for the construction industry to enable substantially longer lasting asset life. Making best use of its unique properties, graphene can be used in paints, coatings, lubricants, adhesives and batteries among an ever-growing number of applications.

The company was founded by Professor Karl Coleman in 2010 with operations and processes he initially developed at Durham University. In 2013, the firm was admitted to London Stock Exchange’s AIM for smaller companies and expanded its infrastructure to go global.

Mayor Houchen said:

There is some truly amazing ground-breaking work going on right here in Teesside, Darlington and Hartlepool that is attracting attention right across the world with our highly-skilled workers using their expertise in a range of sectors, and Applied Graphene Materials is a great example of that.

It was brilliant to learn all about their work and their interesting opportunities in our region. They are an example of a firm creating the products of the future in sectors we need to support, and we as a region are leading the way.

Adrian Potts, AGM’s CEO noted:

It was a real pleasure to have Mayor Houchen visit today to see what we do and to understand more about graphene materials and the potential they offer in real world applications.

To enable the Mayor’s team to see this technology right here in the Tees area is important in gaining an appreciation of the breadth of opportunity that it could represent.

Applications are apparent in a wide range of sectors for the local area including steel, wind turbines, and industrial coatings and other adjacent advanced technologies such as composite materials. We look forward to stronger links with local companies and the Mayor’s office as a result of this visit.

Tags:  Adrian Potts  Applied Graphene Materials  coatings  Corrosion  Graphene 

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Silicon-graphene hybrid plasmonic waveguide photodetectors beyond 1.55 μm

Posted By Graphene Council, Monday, March 16, 2020
Silicon photonics is known as a key technology for modern optical communications at the near infrared wavelength-band, i.e., 1.31/1.55 μm. Currently silicon photonics has been desired to be extended to the wavelength-band beyond 1.55 μm, e.g., 2 μm, for important applications in optical communications, nonlinear photonics, and on-chip sensing. However, the realization of high-performance silicon-based waveguide photodetectors beyond 1.55 μm still faces challenges since there are some fabrication issues as well as wavelength-band limitations. As an alternative, two-dimensional materials (e.g., graphene) provide a promising solution because of the ability for broad operation wavelength-bands and the advantage of avoiding structure mismatch in the design and fabrication.

In the paper published in Light: Science & Applications, scientists from Zhejiang University and Southeast University in China proposed and demonstrated high-performance waveguide photodetectors beyond 1.55 μm by introducing a novel silicon-graphene hybrid plasmonic waveguide. In particular, an ultra-thin wide silicon ridge core region with a metal cap atop is introduced to obtain a unique mode field profile, so that light absorption of graphene is enhanced. Furthermore, the fabrication is easy and the graphene-metal contact resistance is reduced, compared to the previous silicon-graphene hybrid waveguides. For example, the graphene absorption efficiencies are as high as 54.3% and 68.6% for 20 μm-long and 50 μm-long absorption regions, when operating at 1.55 μm and 2 μm, respectively.

For the fabricated photodetectors operating at 2 μm, the measured 3 dB-bandwidths are >20 GHz (limited by the experimental setup), while the responsivities are 30-70 mA/W for 0.28 mW input optical power under -0.3V bias voltage. For the photodetectors operating at 1.55 μm, the 3 dB-bandwidth is >40 GHz (limited by the setup), while the measured responsivity is about 0.4 A/W for 0.16 mW input optical power under -0.3V bias voltage.

In this work, the mechanisms in graphene photodetectors are analyzed carefully, which suggested that the photo-thermoelectric effect is the dominant mechanism for photo-response when operating at zero bias voltage. When the photodetector operates at non-zero bias voltages, the dominant mechanism becomes the bolometric or photoconductive effect. This comprehensive analysis helps better understand the photocurrent generation in the graphene-metal interfaces.

These scientists summarize the highlights of their work:

"We have proposed and demonstrated high-performance silicon-graphene hybrid plasmonic waveguide photodetectors beyond 1.55 μm. In particular, a novel silicon-graphene hybrid plasmonic waveguide was used by introducing an ultra-thin wide silicon ridge core region with a metal cap atop. The optical modal filed is manipulated in both vertical and horizontal directions. Thus, the light absorption in graphene is enhanced, meanwhile the metal absorption loss is minimized. This greatly helps achieve sufficient light absorption of graphene within a short absorption region."

"The silicon-graphene waveguide photodetectors operating at 2 μm were demonstrated with a 3 dB-bandwidth over 20 GHz. The measured responsivity is 30-70 mA/W at the bias voltage of -0.3V for input optical power of 0.28 mW. The photodetector at 1.55 μm was also demonstrated with excellent performances. The present work paves the way for achieving high-responsivity and high-speed waveguide photodetectors on silicon for near/mid-infrared wavelength-bands" they added.

"In future works, more efforts should be given to introduce some special junction structures to minimize the dark current and further extend the operation wavelength-band. Graphene waveguide photodetectors may play an important role in mid-infrared silicon photonics, which will play an important role in time resolved spectroscopy, lab-on-chip sensing, nonlinear photonics, as well as optical communication" they said.

Tags:  Graphene  photonics  Southeast University in China  Zhejiang University 

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Graphene solar heating film offers new opportunity for efficient thermal energy harvesting

Posted By Graphene Council, Monday, March 16, 2020
Researchers at Swinburne’s Centre for Translational Atomaterials have developed a highly efficient solar absorbing film that absorbs sunlight with minimal heat loss and rapidly heats up to 83°C in an open environment.

The graphene metamaterial film has great potential for use in solar thermal energy harvesting and conversion, thermophotovoltaics (directly converting heat to electricity), solar seawater desalination, wastewater treatment, light emitters and photodetectors.

The researchers have developed a prototype to demonstrate the photo-thermal performance and thermal stability of the film. They have also proposed a scalable and low-cost manufacturing strategy to produce this graphene metamaterial film for practical applications.

“In our previous work, we demonstrated a 90 nm graphene metamaterial heat-absorbing film,” says Professor Baohua Jia, founding Director of the Centre for Translational Atomaterials.

“In this new work, we reduced the film thickness to 30 nm and improved the performance by minimising heat loss. This work forms an exciting pillar in our atomaterial research.”

Lead author Dr Keng-Te Lin says: “Our cost-effective and scalable structured graphene metamaterial selective absorber is promising for energy harvesting and conversion applications. Using our film an impressive solar to vapour efficiency of 96.2 per cent can be achieved, which is very competitive for clean water generation using renewable energy source.”

Co-author Dr Han Lin adds: “In addition to the long lifetime of the proposed graphene metamaterial, the solar-thermal performance is very stable under working conditions, making it attractive for industrial use. The 30 nm thickness significantly reduced the amount of the graphene materials, thus saving the costs, making it accessible for real life applications.”

The research is published in Nature Communications and has been funded by an Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Project and the ARC Industrial Transformation Training Centre in Surface Engineering for Advanced Materials (SEAM).

Tags:  Energy  Graphene  Han Lin  Keng-Te Lin  solar cells  Swinburne University of Technology 

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Posted By Graphene Council, Friday, March 13, 2020
Global Graphene Group (G3) announces the consolidation of Angstron Energy Company (AEC) into Honeycomb Battery Company (HBC), effective February 28, 2020. G3 is the holding company for both organizations, in addition to Taiwan Graphene Company (TGC) and Nanotek Instruments. This structure change brings the world-class energy storage and battery R&D and manufacturing expertise from both AEC and HBC together under one leader, Dr. Aruna Zhamu, G3 co-founder and HBC President.

“The combination of these two businesses will create a powerful energy storage and battery products company with some of the best technology and products in the market,” said John Davis, G3 Chief Operating Officer. “With the good leadership of Dr. Aruna Zhamu as HBC’s Global President, the future is very exciting.”

“We’re primed for rapid development and commercialization of our energy and battery products with the combined resources and expertise under HBC,” said Dr. Aruna Zhamu. “Bringing our Si anode and current collectors to market is a priority for HBC for 2020. I look forward to continuing to lead this team and growing our business.”

G3 is pleased to announce additional leadership changes. Adam Quirk, formerly VP of Business Development, has been promoted to TGC Global President. In this new role, Quirk will manage G3’s TGC organization, which manufacturers graphene raw materials, thermal management products and nanocomposite products. Stuart Blair, formerly Director of Finance, was promoted to Vice President of Finance. Bob Crouch, formerly Director of IP, was promoted to Vice President of Legal Affairs. These promotions round out the company’s executive leadership team.

“These key leadership changes position G3 to accomplish our strategic goal of expanding our manufacturing of battery and thermal management solutions and continuing to grow our market share,” said Dr. Bor Jang, G3 Chief Executive Officer. “We have a strong leadership team in place who will take G3 to the next level.”

Tags:  Adam Quirk  Aruna Zhamu  Battery  Bor Jang  Global Graphene Group  Graphene 

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A Graphene Innovation That Is Music to Your Ears

Posted By Graphene Council, Friday, March 13, 2020
Just over 15 years since a couple of researchers in the U.K. used adhesive tape to isolate single atomic layers of carbon, known as graphene, from a chunk of graphite, their Nobel Prize-winning discovery has fueled a revolution in ultrathin materials R&D.

Graphene and other atomically thin “2D” materials exhibit exotic properties that researchers hope to tap into for a range of applications – from tinier transistors packed into more powerful and compact computer processors, to smaller and more precise sensors, flexible digital displays, and a new wave of quantum computers.

Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have helped to advance this research into ultrathin materials on a number of fronts, enlisting specialized tools and techniques to make them and to study their structure and properties at the nanoscale and atomic scale.

Now a California-based company called GraphAudio is moving toward commercializing graphene-based audio technology developed by researchers at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley in an effort to stimulate an audio revolution.

Ramesh Ramchandani, GraphAudio CEO, said the company’s goal is to use the licensed technology to manufacture graphene components that other companies incorporate in their products.

He said he expects GraphAudio’s technology – which could be available to consumers within one or two years – will be graphene components in earbud headphones and amplifiers that are integrated into products made by established audio-product manufacturers.

The technology licensed from Berkeley Lab in 2016, which relates to the use of graphene in a sound-producing component known as a transducer, could transform a variety of devices, including speakers, earbuds and headphones, microphones, autonomous vehicle sensors, and ultrasonic and echolocation systems.

“We have been working on graphene-based materials and structures for a number of years now, and this transducer is one of the applications that came out of that,” said Alex Zettl, a senior faculty scientist at Berkeley Lab and a physics professor at UC Berkeley who is a co-inventor of the technology licensed by GraphAudio. The other inventor is Qin Zhou, a former Berkeley Lab postdoctoral researcher who is now an assistant professor at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln.

The transducer developed through their team’s research uses a small, several-layers-thick graphene film called a membrane that converts electric signals into sound.

“It is kind of like a drumhead, with a circular frame and the membrane stretched over it,” Zettl said. The graphene membrane measures about a centimeter across. The membrane and supporting frame are sandwiched between silicon-based electrodes that are driven with alternating voltages.

The electric fields cause the graphene membrane to vibrate and create sound in an efficient, controlled way. This design, known as an electrostatic transducer, requires fewer parts and far less energy than more conventional designs, which can require electrical coils and magnets.

“When we drive it with an electrical audio signal, it acts as a loudspeaker,” Zettl said.

In some popular in-ear headphones, only about 10 percent of electrical energy gets converted to sound while the rest is lost as heat. The graphene transducer, though, converts about 99 percent of the energy into sound, he said.

Also, the graphene transducer is almost distortion-free and has an extremely “flat” response across a very broad range of sound frequencies – even well beyond what the human ear is capable of hearing. This means that the sound is of equal quality across a wide range of high and low frequencies – “not just in the audio band, but from subsonic all the way to ultrasonic,” Zettl said. “This is pretty much unprecedented.”

Because of this large bandwidth, the graphene-based transducer could be used for echolocation systems for submarine communications, ultrasonic systems for locating survivors in a rubble-strewn environment, and for high-quality imaging of human fetuses in the womb, as examples.

And the same properties that make the graphene transducer work well in speakers can also make for high-quality microphones, Zettl noted. “We demonstrated both technologies in our lab. Both have the potential for being commercialized.”

Ramchandani of GraphAudio said that GraphAudio’s sample headphones and microphones that the company demoed at the Consumer Electronics Show in January resulted in some productive discussions with prospective partners, and some consumer experiences that he said evoked a “Wow” response.

The company claims the sound quality of its technology is so crystal-clear that it’s possible to pick out an individual instrument’s tones from a symphony orchestra.

Ramchandani noted that flat-screen television technology has all but replaced bulkier and heavier cathode-ray tube televisions, and he expects the same sort of transformation in audio products.

Among the products that could emerge from GraphAudio’s licensed technology are thin car speakers embedded in a vehicle’s interior ceiling for an improved surround-sound experience, and improved car sensors that rely on two-way echolocation to avoid vehicle collisions.

Zettl said his team continues its R&D efforts with ultrathin materials and nanostructures.

His team members have specialties ranging from chemistry and physics to mechanical engineering and materials science, and the researchers are frequent users of Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry, a nanoscale science facility; and the Advanced Light Source, which produces light beams that can be used to study materials at tiny scales.

“I wouldn’t be able to do any of this work without the students and postdoctoral researchers and the facilities that are here at Berkeley Lab,” Zettl said.

Members of his research team routinely use atomic-resolution microscopes at the Molecular Foundry to explore the structure of ultrathin materials, for example. And team members also use X-rays produced by the Advanced Light Source to examine other properties of materials that could make them well-suited for particular applications, he noted.

A new thrust in his team’s research is to explore how to make new types of mechanical transducers with ultrathin materials that are manufactured with tunable elastic properties – enabled by precisely patterned nanoscale holes or slots.

In addition to their use in new transducer configurations, such perforated membranes could also be useful for applications ranging from water filtration to genetic sequencing.

“To be able to work on things that have real applications and public benefits – it’s nice to see that full progression,” Zettle said. “I’m thrilled to be able to see these applications come out of this. For me that’s personally rewarding.”

Tags:  2D materials  Alex Zettl  GraphAudio  Graphene  Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  Ramesh Ramchandani 

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