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New production method for carbon nanotubes gets green light

Posted By Graphene Council, Thursday, January 9, 2020
A new method of producing carbon nanotubes - tiny molecules with incredible physical properties used in touchscreen displays, 5G networks and flexible electronics - has been given the green light by researchers, meaning work in this crucial field can continue.

Single-walled carbon nanotubes are among the most attractive nanomaterials for a wide range of applications ranging from nanoelectronics to medical sensors. They can be imagined as the result of rolling a single graphene sheet into a tube.

Their properties vary widely with their diameter, what chemists call chirality - how symmetrical they are - and by how the graphene sheet is rolled.

The problem faced by researchers is that it is no longer possible to make high quality research samples of single-walled carbon nanotubes using the standard method. This was associated with the Carbon Center at Rice University, which used the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) gas-phase process developed by Nobel Laureate, the late Rick Smalley.

The demise of the Carbon Center in the mid-2010s, the divesting of the remaining HiPco samples to a third-party entity with no definite plans of further production, and the expiration of the core patents for the HiPco process, meant that this existing source of nanotubes was no longer an option.

Now however, a collaboration between scientists at Swansea University (Wales, UK), Rice University (USA), Lamar University (USA), and NoPo Nanotechnologies (India) has demonstrated that the latter's process and material design is a suitable replacement for the the Rice method.

Analysis of the Rice "standard" and new commercial-scale samples show that back-to-back comparisons are possible between prior research and future applications, with the newer HiPco nanotubes from NoPo Nanotechnologies comparing very favourably to the older ones from Rice.

These findings will go some way to reassure researchers who might have been concerned that their work could not continue as high-quality nanotubes would no longer be readily available.

Professor Andrew Barron of Swansea University's Energy Safety Research Institute, the project lead, said:
"Variability in carbon nanotube sources is known to be a significant issue when trying to compare research results from various groups. What is worse is that being able to correlate high quality literature results with scaled processes is still difficult".

Erstwhile members of the Smalley group at Rice University, which developed the original HiPco process, helped start NoPo Nanotechnologies with the aim of updating the HiPco process, and produce what they call NoPo HiPCO® SWCNTs.

Lead author Dr. Varun Shenoy Gangoli stated:
"It is in the interest of all researchers to understand how the presently available product compares to historically available Rice materials that have been the subject of a great range of academic studies, and also to those searching for a commercial replacement to continue research and development in this field."

Tags:  Andrew Barron  carbon nanotubes  Graphene  Medical  nanoelectronics  Rice University  Sensors  Swansea University  Varun Shenoy Gangoli 

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Energy levels in electrons of 2D materials are mapped for the first time

Posted By Graphene Council, Thursday, January 9, 2020
Researchers based at the National Graphene Institute at The University of Manchester have developed an innovative measurement method that allows, for the first time, the mapping of the energy levels of electrons in the conduction band of semiconducting 2D materials.

Writing in Nature Communications, a team led by Dr Roman Gorbachev reports the first precise mapping of the conduction band of 2D indium selenide (InSe) using resonant tunnelling spectroscopy, to access the previously unexplored part of the electronic structure. They observed multiple subbands for both electrons and holes and tracked their evolution with the number of atomic layers in InSe.

Many emerging technologies rely on novel semiconductor structures, where the motion of electrons is restricted in one or more directions. Such confinement is in the nature of 2D materials and it is responsible for many of their new and exciting properties.

For instance, the colour of the emitted light shifts towards shorter wavelengths as they get thinner, analogous to quantum dots changing colour when their size is varied. As another consequence, the allowed energy available for the electrons in such materials, called conduction and valence bands, split into multiple subbands.

We hope this study will pave the way for exploration of intersubband transitions and lead to development of prototype optoelectronic devices with tuneable emission in the challenging terahertz range, Dr Roman Gorbachev.

Optical transitions between such subbands present a large potential for real-life applications as they provide optically active in terahertz and far-infrared ranges, which can be employed for security and communication technologies as light emitters or detectors.

Dr Roman Gorbachev said: “We hope this study will pave the way for exploration of intersubband transitions and lead to development of prototype optoelectronic devices with tuneable emission in the challenging terahertz range.”

Tags:  2D materials  Graphene  optoelectronics  Roman Gorbachev  Semiconductor  University of Manchester 

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Carbon Nanotubes & Quantum Dots: Army Thinks VERY Small

Posted By Graphene Council, Thursday, January 9, 2020
While the rest of the Army works on new hypersonic missiles, robotic mini-tanks, and ultra-high-speed helicopters, the Army Research Office is diving deep into the submicroscopic world of nanotechnology and quantum mechanics.

The military is intensely interested in the potential to improve the costs and capabilities of its electronics, which in modern warfare are as vital to survival as guns and armor. But as with the Internet, radar, and other originally military technologies, there are civilian applications as well.

Carbon Nanotubes

One Army Research Office project is looking to replace traditional silicon-based semiconductors with more efficient carbon nanotubes, program manager Joe Qiu told me. The new technology is particularly useful at the very high frequencies (30-plus gigahertz) and very short wavelengths (millimeter wave) that the telecommunications industry wants to use for 5G networks – including on military bases – and for whatever replaces 5G.

“The initial deployment of 5G, they will be lower than six gigahertz, but there are plans…to improve frequencies to 28 GHz and higher,” Qiu said. “It’s not just 5G — it’s beyond 5G.”

How soon could the private sector reap the benefits of ARO-funded research?

“Commercial use of carbon nanotube-based integrated circuits? Maybe five years,” he said, then added with a laugh: “That’s an estimate. Don’t hold me to that!”

This kind of research can take a long time to bear fruit, Qiu cautioned. Army funding actually helped get the ball rolling on carbon nanotubes for electronics 10 years ago, he said, and it’s taken that long to work out the kinks.

It was mathematically proven a decade ago that nanotubes could channel electricity much more efficiently, Qiu told me. While silicon semiconductors form a lattice that lets electrons scatter in all directions – imagine downtown traffic moving through a grid of streets – carbon nanotubes essentially act like a highway that funnels all the electrons in the desired direction. (The technical term is quantum ballistic transport). But actually producing enough nanotubes of consistent size and quality and getting them to line up right took years of further work, much of it Army funded.

Last year, under a Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grant from ARO, the University of South California and venture-backed startup Carbonics Inc. developed working carbon nanotube transistors. The next big step is to integrate many transistors together into an actual circuit. Then, Qiu said, you can talk about integrating many circuits together to build actual equipment.

That would be a job for other parts of the Army. “The Army Research Office, our core mission actually is investing in basic science,” Qiu emphasized. ARO is just one piece of the Army Research Laboratory, which is in turn part of Combat Capabilities Development Command (formerly RDECOM), which is in turn one of the three major components of Army Futures Command, created in 2018 to coordinate all aspects of modernization from brainstorming futuristic concepts to fielding new equipment.

At ARO, said one of Qiu’s colleagues, Joseph Myers, “we’re a bunch of program managers here who support basic research likely to lead to advances in a variety of different technologies.”

Quantum Dots

While the Chinese-born, US-trained Qiu is a physicist-turned-engineer-turned-program manager, Myers is a mathematician and head of the mathematical sciences division at ARO – a field, he jokes, notoriously disconnected from mundane reality. Qiu’s carbon nanotubes are a fraction of the size of a single human hair. Their lengths vary widely, but their thickness is typically six nanometers or less. Myers is funding research on quantum dots, miniscule crystals of semiconductor whose longest dimension is no more than six nanometers, meaning they could conceivably fit inside a nanotube.

Extremely small size allows extremely fine precision. When energized, a quantum dot will always emit a very specific wavelength (which wavelength depends on the dot’s exact size). They also emit these precise frequencies more powerfully, for a longer time, than traditional semiconductors. Some companies already sell high-end “quantum LED” TV sets that use this property to produce more vivid colors: You can even get one at Best Buy.

The downside, Myers went on, is that it’s much harder to design electronics using quantum dots. Classical models of physics start to fail as you start to enter the strange domain of quantum mechanics, where seemingly solid objects turn into fuzzy fields of energy that can pulse and jump in unpredictable ways. Unlike traditional electronics that use electrical charges to represent 1s and 0s, “the physics of what’s going on isn’t as clean as zero/one anymore,” he said. “It’s got some probability of being a zero, some probability of being a one.”

To predict those probabilities precisely, using current techniques, is arduous and slow. “We largely know the equations, but the equations are just too intractable to solve exactly,” Myers said. “If you’ve got the age of the universe… you can maybe complete one of the calculations.”

“You want to do it in less than one human lifetime,” he said. “You want to do it in a day or two, or a week or so, or maybe even a few hours.”

So how much precision can you safely give up to get your results fast enough to actually use them?

Myers funded work by Southern Methodist University professor Wei Cai, who’s figured out a streamlined modeling technique, using an old Air Force supercomputer that Myers managed to get transferred to SMU before it was scrapped. (The Pentagon has a standing High Performance Computer Modernization Reutilization Program to pass on its older machines.)

Put simply (very, very simply), Cai has figured out which parts of the traditional models tend to have such a miniscule impact on the final result – about 0.000000001 percent – that you can safely ignore them. Then you can just do the calculations that actually matter.

Cai’s technique is 750 times faster than rival approaches, Myers said proudly. In its current form, he cautioned, it is still wrong about 20 percent of the time, but Cai is working on that – he’s likely to apply for further Army funding this year – and in the meantime there are ways to double-check the results.

What kind of improved technologies could you use Cai’s model to design? Besides the QLED televisions already on sale, Myers said there’s interest from multiple parts of the Army Research Laboratory that work on everything from solar panels – a useful complement to fuel-hungry diesel generators and heavy lithium-iron batteries – to military sensors and other electronics. There’s a potential medical application in improving CT scans, as well, which is potentially life-changing not just for civilians but for survivors of skull-rattling roadside bombs.

Congress and good-government watchdogs often wonder, with good reason, about oddball research projects that slip into the Pentagon budget with no clear connection to any military purpose. Then-undersecretary of the Army, Ryan McCarthy – now the secretary – was widely praised in 2017-2018 when he overhauled the service’s science & technology portfolio to cull low-payoff projects and focus 80 percent of investment on the service’s Big Six modernization priorities. But McCarthy was also very careful to leave 20 percent to continue basic research, unconstrained by near-term needs, to sow the seeds of real long-term breakthroughs.

Tags:  Carbon Nanotubes  Carbonics Inc  Graphene  Joe Qiu  quantum dots  Southern Methodist University  The Army Research Office  transistor  University of South California  Wei Cai 

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Jeffrey Grossman named head of the MIT Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Posted By Graphene Council, Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Jeffrey Grossman, the Morton and Claire Goulder and Family Professor in Environmental Systems and a MacVicar Faculty fellow, has been appointed the new head of the MIT Department of Materials Science and Engineering effective Jan. 1, 2020.

Grossman received his PhD in theoretical physics from the University of Illinois and performed postdoctoral work at the University of California at Berkeley. He was a Lawrence Fellow at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and returned to Berkeley as director of a Nanoscience Center and head of the Computational Nanoscience research group, with a focus on energy applications. In fall 2009, he joined MIT, where he has developed a research program known for its contributions to energy conversion, energy storage, membranes, and clean-water technologies.

Grossman’s passion for teaching and outstanding contributions to education are evident through courses such as 3.091 (Introduction to Solid-State Chemistry) — within which Grossman applies MIT’s “mens-et-manus” (mind-and-hand) learning philosophy. He uses “goodie bags” containing tools and materials that he covers in his lectures, encouraging hands-on learning and challenging students to ask big questions, take chances, and collaborate with one another.

In recognition of his contributions to engineering education, Grossman was named an MIT MacVicar Faculty Fellow and received the Bose Award for Excellence in Teaching, in addition to being named a fellow of the American Physical Society. He has published more than 200 scientific papers, holds 17 current or pending U.S. patents, and recently co-founded a company, Via Separations, to commercialize graphene-oxide membranes.

“Professor Grossman has done remarkable work in materials science and engineering, in particular energy conversion, energy storage, and clean-water technologies,” says Anantha Chandrakasan, dean of the MIT School of Engineering and the Vannevar Bush Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. “He has demonstrated exceptional commitment and vision as an educator. I am thrilled that he will be serving as the new head of our materials science and engineering department, and know he will be a tremendous leader.”

Tags:  Graphene  Jeffrey Grossman 

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Researchers probe the critical nucleus size of ice formation with graphene oxide nanosheets

Posted By Graphene Council, Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Water freezing is ubiquitous, with impacts ranging from climate and chemical industry to cryobiology and materials science. Ice nucleation is recognized the controlling step in this process and has for nearly a century been assumed to involve formation of a critical ice nucleus as the central transition state. However, there is no direct experimental evidence for the existence of the critical ice nucleus due to its transient and nanoscale nature.

Recently, a joint research group from the Institute of Chemistry of Chinese Academy of Sciences (ICCAS), University of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Hebei University of Technology, led by Prof. WANG Jianjun, provided much awaited experiment-based information regarding the existence and temperature-dependent size of the critical ice nucleus, which have so far only been explored theoretically and using simulations. The work entitled “Probing the critical nucleus size of ice formation with graphene oxide nanosheets” was published in Nature.

“The work was inspired by the dramatically different behaviors in facilitating ice formation of antifreeze proteins and ice nucleation proteins induced by their primary discriminating factor of size,” the author BAI Guoying says. Researchers initiated their study thorough investigating ice nucleation in water droplets containing graphene oxide nanosheets (GOs) of controlled sizes. The experimental results show that GO significantly facilitate ice nucleation only above a critical size, which varies with the degree of supercooling of the droplets. “We infer from our experimental data and theoretical calculations that this value is determined by the size of the critical ice nucleus. For sufficiently large GOs, it sits on their surface and the corresponding nucleation free energy barrier is consistent with classical nucleation theory. In contrast, when the size of GOs is smaller than that of the critical ice nucleus, pinning at the GO periphery forces the forming critical ice nucleus to change shape and thereby gives rise to a much higher nucleation free energy barrier and failure to promote ice nucleation,” the author ZHOU Xin Says. “As pinning of a pre-critical nucleus at a nanoparticle edge is not specific to the ice nucleus on GOs, we expect that our approach can also be used to probe the critical nucleus of other nucleation processes,” WANG says.

The work is supported by NSFC, National Key R&D Program of China and the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Tags:  Chinese Academy of Sciences  Graphene  graphene oxide  Hebei University of Technology  nanosheets  University of Chinese Academy of Sciences  WANG Jianjun  ZHOU Xin 

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Surface acoustic waves in graphene: straintronics with nanoquakes

Posted By Graphene Council, Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Researchers from the Institute for Optoelectronic Systems and Microtechnology at Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) in collaboration with the Paul Drude Institute in Berlin and the State University of Campinas have shown that the properties of graphene can be locally and dynamically modulated by means of a surface acoustic wave (SAW), a kind of earthquake on a chip, generated with an integrated transducer on a piezoelectric substrate holding the graphene sheet.

As they report in the journal Nano Letters ("Dynamic Local Strain in Graphene Generated by Surface Acoustic Waves"), this mechanism permits the strain engineering of graphene at ultra high frequencies (of the order of a few hundred megahertz to a few gigahertz), paving the way for the development of new straintronic devices and applications.

Straintronics is one of the newest research areas being explored in condensed matter physics, in which strain-induced physical effects are used to develop new technologies. Strain in graphene has been shown to give rise to various extraordinary phenomena. 

“Typically, strain is introduced by placing graphene on a stretchable and bendable substrate. However, approaches capable of generating strain locally with fast actuation mechanisms are highly desirable for the development of integrated devices”, noted the researchers in the study.

“SAWs generated by an interdigital transducer on a piezoelectric substrate are a very convenient way to generate strain locally on supported graphene”, says Rajveer Fandan, first author of the study.

These waves are similar to seismic waves produced by Earthquakes and their strain is strongly concentrated at the surface. The great advantage here is that the transducer on the piezoelectric substrate electrically produces the quakes on demand, launching spatially and temporally tailored waves of a controlled magnitude.

“The dynamic strain field of the SAW can be then actively controlled at ultra high frequency allowing us to tune the vibrational properties of graphene”, says Jorge Pedrós, leading scientist of this study.

In particular, the researchers have proved this modulation mechanism by assessing the graphene Raman scattering under the action of the SAW, where the G (optical phonon) and 2D (two optical phonons) Raman bands have been observed to shift due to the phonon mode softening (hardening) under the tensile (compressive) strain of the SAW.

This study concludes that the SAW-driven strain modulation mechanism reported can be extended to other single- or few-layer 2D materials (many of them piezoelectric themselves) and van der Waals heterostructures, making SAWs powerful tools to explore and exploit these novel 2D systems “where the physics is especially rich and strain engineering opens a whole range of new possibilities".

Tags:  Graphene  Jorge Pedros  Optoelectronic Systems and Microtechnology at Univ  Paul Drude Institute in Berlin  Rajveer Fandan  State University of Campinas 

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Graphene gas sensors for real-time monitoring of air pollution

Posted By Graphene Council, Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Scientists at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), working with partners from the Graphene Flagship, Chalmers University of Technology, the Advanced Institute of Technology, Royal Holloway University and Linköping University, have created a low-cost, low-energy consuming NO2 sensor that measures NO2 levels in real-time.

The World Health Organisation reported that 4.2 million deaths every year are a direct result of exposure to ambient air pollution such as NO2, SO2, NH3, CO2 and CO. One of the most dangerous pollutants, NO2 gas, is produced by burning fossil fuels e.g. in diesel engines. Significant portions of the population in large cities, specifically London, have been consistently exposed to NO2 levels above the legislated limit. Even at very low concentrations NO2 is toxic for humans, leading to breathing problems, asthma attacks and potentially causing childhood obesity and dementia.  

NPL and partners have developed a graphene-based NO2 detector that reports pollutant levels based on changes in its electrical resistance. The high sensitivity of graphene to the local environment has shown to be highly advantageous in sensing applications, where ultralow concentrations of absorbed molecules induce a significant response on the electronic properties of graphene. The unique electronic structure makes graphene the ‘ultimate’ sensing material for applications in environmental monitoring and air quality.  

NPL has developed and demonstrated the novel type of NO2 sensors based on different types of graphene. This low-cost and technologically simple solution uses simple chemiresistor approach and allows for measurements of the exceedingly low levels of NO2 e.g. below 10 ppb. 1 ppb is a concentration equal to a droplet of ink in 2 Olympic size swimming pools. According to the World Health Organisation’s guidelines the targeted level of NO2 pollution in cities is 21 ppb however, the typical average level in London is 30-40 ppb.    

There is a well-demonstrated global need for high sensitivity, low-cost, low-energy consumption miniaturised NO2 gas sensors to be deployed in a dense network and to be used to pinpoint and avoid high pollution hot spots. Such sensors operating in real-time can help to visualise pollution in urban areas with unprecedently high local resolution. 

Olga Kazakova, National Physical Laboratory (NPL) states: “Understanding the problem is the first step to solving the problem. If you only monitor certain junctions or roads for NO2 pollution, you do not get an accurate picture of the environment. In order to do this, a dense network must be set up to show the dynamically changing level of pollution through different times of day and year, so you can get to know the real level of critical exposure.” 

With the data provided by a dense network of graphene sensors, people could us an app to check how much NO2 pollution they might be exposed to on their planned route, and city councils could use this information to dynamically restrict and divert cars near schools and hospitals. This would enable governing bodies to adopt smart and flexible restrictive measures in specific areas recognised as being highly pollutive. 

Tags:  Chalmers University of Technology  environment  Graphene  Graphene Flagship  National Physical Laboratory  Olga Kazakova  pollution  Sensors 

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U.S. Army seeks a graphene-based composite EMI shielding material.

Posted By Terrance Barkan, Tuesday, January 7, 2020

OBJECTIVE: Develop a graphene-based composite EMI shielding material capable of replacing metal shielding in IC packages and printed circuit board components.

DESCRIPTION: As soldier electronics and their components operate at faster speeds, smaller size, and in closer confinements a substantial increase in Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) can lead to system failures. This effort supports the FREEDOM ERP as it enables enhanced technologies to protect next generation of highly mobile RF communications for battlefield dominance in the broad bandwidth frequencies X-band (8-12 GHz) to the Ku-band (12-18 GHz). Metal EMI shields in IC packages and printed circuit board components have limitations in poor chemical resistance, oxidation in long term harsh environments, high density, flexibility, and form factor. Current strategies to obtain the desired EMI shields mainly rely on increasing the material's thickness to prolong the EM wave absorption routes or loading large amounts of fillers in order to increase its electrical conductivity [1]. However, these factors inevitably increase the production cost and limit scalability.

Click to read the rest of the SBIR project description and to reach the Technical Points of Contact. 

Tags:  Composite  Electronics  EMI Shield  Graphene  RF Shield  SBIR 

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Graphene Surprises Researchers Again: Strange ‘Melting’ Behavior

Posted By Graphene Council, Monday, January 6, 2020
Physicists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and the Institute for High Pressure Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences have used computer modeling to refine the melting curve of graphite that has been studied for over 100 years, with inconsistent findings. They also found that graphene “melting” is in fact sublimation. The results of the study came out in the journal Carbon.

Graphite is a material widely used in various industries — for example in heat shields for spacecraft — so accurate data on its behavior at ultrahigh temperatures is of paramount importance. Graphite melting has been studied since the early 20th century. About 100 experiments have placed the graphite melting point at various temperatures between 3,000 and 7,000 kelvins. With a spread so large, it is unclear which number is true and can be considered the actual melting point of graphite. The values returned by different computer models are also at variance with each other.

A team of physicists from MIPT and HPPI RAS compared several computer models to try and find the matching predictions. Yuri Fomin and Vadim Brazhkin used two methods: classical molecular dynamics and ab initio molecular dynamics. The latter accounts for quantum mechanical effects, making it more accurate. The downside is that it only deals with interactions between a small number of atoms on short time scales. The researchers compared the obtained results with prior experimental and theoretical data.

Fomin and Brazhkin found the existing models to be highly inaccurate. But it turned out that comparing the results produced by different theoretical models and finding overlaps can provide an explanation for the experimental data.

As far back as 1960s, the graphite melting curve was predicted to have a maximum. Its existence points to complex liquid behavior, meaning that the structure of the liquid rapidly changes on heating or densification. The discovery of the maximum was heavily disputed, with a number of studies confirming and challenging it over and over. Fomin and Brazhkin’s results show that the liquid carbon structure undergoes changes above the melting curve of graphene. The maximum therefore has to exist.

The second part of the study is dedicated to studying the melting of graphene. No graphene melting experiments have been conducted. Previously, computer models predicted the melting point of graphene at 4,500 or 4,900 K. Two-dimensional carbon was therefore considered to have the highest melting point in the world.

“In our study, we observed a strange ‘melting’ behavior of graphene, which formed linear chains. We showed that what happens is it transitions from a solid directly into a gaseous state. This process is called sublimation,” commented Associate Professor Yuri Fomin of the Department of General Physics, MIPT. The findings enable a better understanding of phase transitions in low-dimensional materials, which are considered an important component of many technologies currently in development, in fields from electronics to medicine.

The researchers produced a more precise and unified description of how the graphite melting curve behaves, confirming a gradual structural transition in liquid carbon. Their calculations show that the melting temperature of graphene in an argon atmosphere is close to the melting temperature of graphite.

Tags:  2D materials  Graphene  Graphite  Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology  Nanotechnology  Vadim Brazhkin  Yuri Fomin 

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Graphene nanoarchitectures for diverse applications

Posted By Graphene Council, Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Graphene is an exceptional material with many potential applications. The on-surface synthesis of covalent architectures with atomic precision has emerged as one of the most promising methods for providing new functionalities to graphene.

Researchers from the ICN2 Atomic Manipulation and Spectroscopy Group and the DIPC discuss it in an article published in the Revista Española de Física.

This method allows creating a wide range of graphenic architectures from precursor molecules that are designed practically à la carte.

ICN2 researcher César Moreno and ICREA Prof. Aitor Mugarza (Leader of the Atomic Manipulation and Spectroscopy Group), together with 

Ikerbasque researcher Aran Garcia-Lekue (DIPC) have written an article for the Revista Española de Física discussing these topics.

They present the milestones achieved and the challenges and opportunities ahead regarding the top-down and the bottom-up approaches to build graphene nanoarchitectures. They focus on the potential applications of graphene nanostrips for nanoelectronics and photonics and of nanoporous graphene for advanced filtering.

Tags:  Aitor Mugarza  Aran Garcia-Lekue  César Moreno  Graphene  ICN2  nanoelectronics  photonics 

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