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Bottom-up Synthesis of Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons Directly on Metal Oxide Surfaces

Posted By Graphene Council, Monday, July 13, 2020
Scientific Achievement
Decoupled, atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are obtained by an on-surface synthesis approach on a model metal oxide and exhibit spin-polarized magnetic states.

Significance and Impact
This work demonstrates a path toward forming custom-designed carbon nanostructures by direct on-surface synthesis methods on technologically relevant semiconducting or insulating surfaces.

Research Details
– Highly selective and sequential activation of C-Br, C-F, and C-H bonds are thermally triggered on the oxide surface with rationally designed molecular precursors during multi-step synthesis of GNRs.
– Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) used to monitor the formation of intermediates and GNRs in situ, revealing electronic and magnetic states and confirming weak interactions between GNRs and rutile TiO2.

Tags:  An-Ping Lee  Graphene  Graphene Nanoribbons  Mark A. Kolmer  Wonhee Ko 

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Tunable Spin-Polarized Correlated States in Twisted Double Bilayer Graphene

Posted By Graphene Council, Friday, July 10, 2020
Reducing the energy bandwidth of electrons in a lattice below the long-range Coulomb interaction energy promotes correlation effects. Moiré superlattices—which are created by stacking van der Waals heterostructures with a controlled twist angle—enable the engineering of electron band structure. Exotic quantum phases can emerge in an engineered moiré flat band. The recent discovery of correlated insulator states, superconductivity and the quantum anomalous Hall effect in the flat band of magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene has sparked the exploration of correlated electron states in other moiré systems. The electronic properties of van der Waals moiré superlattices can further be tuned by adjusting the interlayer coupling or the band structure of constituent layers.

In a new article published in Nature*, Harvard Physics PhD graduate Xiaomeng Liu, grad student Zeyu Hao, and other members of Professors Ashvin VIshwanath and Philip Kim's groups had demonstrate a flat electron band that is tunable by perpendicular electric fields in a range of twist angles, using van der Waals heterostructures of twisted double bilayer graphene (TDBG). Similarly to magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene, TDBG shows energy gaps at the half- and quarter-filled flat bands, indicating the emergence of correlated insulator states. The authors find that the gaps of these insulator states increase with in-plane magnetic field, suggesting a ferromagnetic order. On doping the half-filled insulator, a sudden drop in resistivity is observed with decreasing temperature. This critical behaviour is confined to a small area in the density–electric-field plane, and is attributed to a phase transition from a normal metal to a spin-polarized correlated state. The discovery of spin-polarized correlated states in electric-field-tunable TDBG provides a new route to engineering interaction-driven quantum phases.

Tags:  Ashvin VIshwanath  Graphene  Nature  Philip Kim  Xiaomeng Liu  Zeyu Hao 

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WIMI Hologram AR Plans To Invest In R&D in The Chip Field To Seek Technological Breakthroughs

Posted By Graphene Council, Friday, July 10, 2020
WIMI Hologram Cloud (NASDAQ:WIMI) has intensified its efforts in semiconductor business. On the one hand, the application demand of the semiconductor industry in the field of holographic 3D vision has been growing rapidly. On the other hand, it will help the company extend the holographic 3D vision software field from the application layer down to the chip field, and through the strategic direction of combining soft and hard holographic 3D vision software solution, namely, the strategic derivative upgrade to the semiconductor field. WIMI deep in the field of holographic 3 d visual software technology accumulation, with hundreds of related patents and software copyright, so in the direction of semiconductor business extends, and the future is proposed by integrating companies core technology advantages of IC design companies, or with the current chip factory set up a technology research and development with strong proxy technology joint venture company, to implement the supply chain upstream of the semiconductor research and development design, technical services, marketing, etc.

WIMI, the holographic giant that is the first part of holographic AR in the world, has created the third-generation 6D light field holographic technology products through years of original research and development, and its imitation is as high as 98%. WIMI has signed strategic alliances with relevant enterprises, and the scope of cooperation involves film and television, media, games, children’s education, animation, hardware and so on. It mainly involves the establishment of joint ventures, AR INTELLECTUAL property IP, holographic intellectual property IP and holographic entertainment content IP cooperation, as well as various commercial resource sharing and so on. WIMI will form hundreds of patent protection according to its own 295 related patents, and ensure that users can experience the latest and most advanced holographic AR high simulation digital product experience at the international level through strict patent protection means and technical confidentiality. At present, WIMI mainly focuses its business application scenarios in five professional fields, such as home entertainment, lightfield cinema, performing arts system, commercial publishing system and advertising display system.

According to introducing, WIMI cover from the holographic AI computer vision synthesis, holographic visual presentation, holographic interactive software development, holographic AR online and offline advertising, holographic ARSDK pay, 5G holographic communication software development, holographic development of face recognition, holographic AR technology such as holographic AI development in face of multiple links, holographic cloud is a comprehensive technology solutions provider.

According to a post on Samsung’s website, the company has taken a step toward the “ideal semiconductor” by discovering new semiconductor materials that will make future semiconductor chips smaller and faster. The Samsung Institute of Electronics and Technology recently said it had discovered a new material, “amorphous boron nitride (A-BN)”, in collaboration with Ulsan Institute of Technology. The discovery comes 16 years after a team at the University of Manchester in the UK found graphene to be an “ideal new material”.

The article on Samsung’s official website says the key to solving the challenge of semiconductor materials is to look at two-dimensional materials. One of the challenges based on existing silicon semiconductor technology is “increasing integration”. As integration increases, more information can be processed quickly, but technical problems such as interference between electrical circuits also arise. Two-dimensional materials are becoming the key to solving the industry’s woes, so they are attracting a lot of attention. The two-dimensional material has the properties of a conductor, non-conductor or semiconductor at even the smallest atomic units of matter, and is so thin and difficult to bend that it is about 100,000th the thickness of A4 paper.

The most representative of these is graphene. For many years, The Samsung Electronics Technology Institute has been researching and developing graphene for large-scale semiconductor manufacturing applications. Based on this source technology, they have recently focused on graphene for wiring. As semiconductors become more integrated, the lines between the circuits become narrower and the impedance increases. This is due to graphene’s compact hexagonal structure, which ACTS as the thinest, hardest and resistive barrier.

Amorphous boron nitride is a derivative of white graphene. It consists of nitrogen and boron atoms, but has an amorphous molecular structure that separates it from white graphene. In addition, in order to miniaturize the semiconductor, it is regarded as one of the core elements of the medium. It is one of the key elements of the semiconductor miniaturization and can play a role in preventing electrical interference. In other words, it is the key to overcoming the problem of electromagnetic interference as semiconductors become more integrated. “In order to apply graphene to semiconductor engineering, it requires technology that can be generated directly on silicon wafers at 400°C,” said Shin Hyun Jin, a researcher at Samsung Electronics Research Institute.

The team not only ensured the lowest dielectric constant of 1.78 in the world, but also demonstrated that the material could be produced on a large scale in a semiconductor substrate at 400°C, thus taking a step towards process innovation. Amorphous boron nitride can be used in semiconductor systems including memory semiconductors (DRAM, NAND, etc.) and is expected to be used in memory semiconductors for server servers that require high performance.

A semiconductor is a substance whose conductivity is intermediate between that of a conductor and an insulator. Compared with conductors and insulators, semiconductor materials are the latest to be discovered. It was not until the 1930s, when purification techniques for materials were improved, that the existence of semiconductors was truly recognized by academia. Semiconductor is mainly composed of four parts: integrated circuit, photoelectric device, discrete device and sensor. Since integrated circuit accounts for more than 80% of the share of devices, semiconductor and integrated circuit are usually equivalent. Integrated circuits are divided into four categories according to product types: microprocessor, memory, logic devices and emulators. Usually we call them chips.

At present, many technology giant qualcomm, mediatek, nvidia and other related companies in artificial intelligence, 5G, the Internet of things, and other areas of the chain are layout, the demand for upstream suppliers is no longer a simple electronic components or products supply, to the supplier’s technical service ability, providing comprehensive solution ability, and one-stop value-added service ability are put forward higher requirements.

Holographic technology is simply through AR, let the audience can watch the holographic characters or open hole in the real scene of real reduction, simulation is as high as 98% above, immersive, micro user experience can be described with stunning beauty holographic patterns, the combination of the holographic technology and entertainment viewer can become a character in the movie/stage, involved in the film/stage pre-made environment and plot, let the viewer, as it were, feel oneself is a member of a movie/stage viewer is the main character in the movie or a part of it, and continue to interact with content to produce films/stage.

Analysts at Maxim Group, LLC have a ‘buy’ rating on WIMI with a $8 price target, meaning the stock has 200% upside. According to Maxim Group, LLC equity research on WIMI, WIMI is the leader in the augmented reality (AR) long-term growth market. Zion Research expects the global augmented reality (AR) market to grow at a compound annual rate of more than 63% by 2025. Companies are increasingly using augmented reality for a variety of purposes. Frost &; Sullivan expects the total revenue of China’s holographic AR industry to grow by 83 percent, from 3.6 billion yuan (about $5 billion) in 2017 to 455 billion yuan (about $65 billion) in 2025.

According to the annual report, WIMI business began to expand gradually in 2017, with revenues of 192 million yuan, 225 million yuan and 319 million yuan in 17-19, with growth rates of 17% and 41%, showing an accelerating momentum. In terms of net profit, it was 73 million yuan, 89 million yuan and 102 million yuan respectively in 17-19 years.

From the above data WIMI, it is not difficult to see that the business growth of WIMI is in a benign development trend. From 2017 to 2019, the financial revenue of the three years has been increasing continuously. The amount of revenue generated from this market is increasing and the market expansion is expanding.

WIMI Hologram Cloud (NASDAQ:WIMI) will invest more funds, through to the longitudinal extension in the field of semiconductor, and the future of the integration of on semiconductor assets or cooperate with chip factory, will greatly improve the WIMI strength of technical services, further enhance viscosity related to the current customers, at the same time, based on a higher added value, enhance the WIMI sales ability of the company. WIMI plans to develop semiconductor market-related businesses in the next three years, and WIMI is expected to see new growth.

Throughout the past half century, the rapid development of semiconductors has provided the basis for our technological explosion. But developments in 5G seem to point the way. Looking back on the glorious history of semiconductor development, also to a certain extent represents the history of human civilization. If the development of machines liberated human labor, the development of semiconductors liberated human computing power.

Tags:  2D materials  amorphous boron nitride  Graphene  hexagonal  Maxim Group  Samsung Institute of Electronics and Technology  Semiconductor  Shin Hyun Jin  Ulsan Institute of Technology  University of Manchester  WIMI Hologram Cloud 

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Brookhaven and Forge Nano to Mature Noble Gas-Trapping Technology

Posted By Graphene Council, Friday, July 10, 2020
A research proposal submitted by the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) and Nuclear Science and Technology (NST) Department at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory, with the startup Forge Nano as a partner, has been selected as a 2020 Technology Commercialization Fund (TCF) project. Of the 82 technologies selected from among more than 220 applications, three were developed at Brookhaven Lab. This TCF funding is the first to be awarded to the CFN, where the technology was developed.

The DOE Office of Technology Transitions manages the TCF program, which was created by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to promote promising energy technologies developed at DOE national labs. Federal funding awarded through the TCF is matched with nonfederal contributions by private partners interested in commercializing the technology. The goal of the TCF is to advance the commercialization of these technologies and strengthen lab-private sector partnerships to deploy them to the marketplace.  

The project that Brookhaven Lab and Forge Nano scientists will partner on is called “Maturation of Technology for Trapping Xenon and Krypton.”

Xenon (Xe) and krypton (Kr) are two noble gases produced during nuclear fission—a reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into two or more smaller, lighter nuclei—inside nuclear reactors. These gases can decrease the amount of energy extracted from a nuclear fuel source by increasing the pressure in the fuel rod (the sealed tubes that contain fissionable material) and reduce fuel rod lifetime. Moreover, radioactive isotopes of Xe and Kr can become trapped in unreacted fuel, which requires disposal. Therefore, capturing and removing Xe and Kr could improve the energy-generation efficiency of nuclear reactors and reduce radioactive waste.

For several years, scientists in the NST Department have been exploring various candidate materials—including microporous carbon and porous metal-organic frameworks—to absorb these fission gases, thereby reducing pressure buildup in fuel rods. Separately, scientists at the CFN have been developing 2-D porous, cage-like frameworks made of ultrathin—less than a single nanometer—inorganic silica (silicon and oxygen) and aluminosilicate (aluminum, silicon, and oxygen) films supported on metal surfaces. In 2017, they became the first team to trap a noble gas inside a 2-D porous structure at room temperature. Last year, they discovered the mechanism by which these “nanocages” trap and separate single atoms of argon (Ar), Kr, and Xe at room temperature. Following these studies, the CFN submitted an invention disclosure on the silicate materials for trapping gases (among other applications) to Brookhaven’s Intellectual Property Legal Group, which together with Brookhaven’s Office of Technology Transfer, helped the team explore promising applications and connected CFN and NST scientists.

“Trapping single atoms of noble gases at noncryogenic temperatures is extremely difficult and a relevant challenge for nuclear waste remediation, among other industrial applications,” said CFN Interface Science and Catalysis Group materials scientist Anibal Boscoboinik, who has been leading the work. “This difficulty is primarily due to the weak interaction of noble gases in their neutral state. The approach developed at the CFN enables trapping of the noble gas atoms in cages via ionization—converting them to electrically charged atoms, or ions—for a very brief time so they can enter the cages. Once they are inside, they go back to their neutral, stable state, but by that time they are already physically confined in the cages.”  

Now, through the TCF, Brookhaven will partner with Forge Nano to scale up the manufacture of the lab-demonstrated nanocages to maximize the surface area for trapping Kr and Xe atoms. One possible way to achieve this optimization is to place the nanoporous materials inside larger (mesoporous) materials—in other words, a cage within a cage. Forge Nano will apply its expertise in atomic layer deposition—a technique for depositing one atom at a time onto a surface material until a complete layer is formed—for precision nanocoatings to coat the inside of the mesopores with nanocages, where the trapping will occur.

“This innovative material application is a perfect match for us at Forge Nano for coating atomically thin controlled coatings,” said project partner Staci Moulton, the application engineer for business development at Forge Nano. “We are excited to work with CFN researchers to scale up their breakthrough.”

Using ion beams and test reactors at Texas A&M University’s Nuclear Engineering and Science Center and Accelerator Laboratory—one of the partner facilities accessible through the Nuclear Science User Facilities—the Brookhaven team will test the radiation stability of the materials at levels relevant to nuclear fission reactor environments.

“The radiation damage testing capabilities available at Texas A&M will greatly accelerate our ability to construct robust materials,” said NST Department Chair Lynne Ecker.

“Research in our group focuses on understanding at a fundamental level the physicochemical processes that happen on functional surfaces and interfaces exposed to chemicals,” said CFN Interface Science and Catalysis Group Leader Dario Stacchiola. “To probe these processes in real time and under operating conditions, we develop and operate state-of-the-art in situ and operando tools.”

To follow the trapping of the gases, they will perform x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a technique for identifying and quantifying the elements on a sample’s surface. These studies will be conducted using ambient-pressure (AP) XPS instruments located in the CFN Proximal Probes Facility and at the In situ and Operando Soft X-ray Spectroscopy (IOS) beamline of Brookhaven’s National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II).

If successful, this technology—which Brookhaven’s Intellectual Property Legal Group recently submitted a provisional patent application for—would have a major impact on the nuclear power industry and environment at large. As of 2018, nearly 450 nuclear reactors were generating electricity, equivalent to 10 percent of the global electricity supply. Nuclear power is the second largest source of low-carbon electricity (hydropower is the first).

“The nanocages can be transformative in the field of nuclear power generation by improving the efficiency and reliability of nuclear reactors and reducing radioactive waste and emission,” said Boscoboinik.

“A technology to more efficiently trap, separate, and sequester noble gases has applications in advanced nuclear reactors,” added Ecker. “The nanocages have the potential to become an enabling technology for future reactors. We’re very excited to explore this possibility by working with our partner, Forge Nano.”

Tags:  Anibal Boscoboinik  Arrelaine Dameron  Brookhaven National Laboratory  Center for Functional Nanomaterials  Dario Stacchiola  David King  Forge Nano  Graphene  Graphite  Lynne Ecker  Nuclear Science and Technology (NST) Department  Staci Moulton  U.S. Department of Energy 

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Porous graphene ribbons doped with nitrogen for electronics and quantum computing

Posted By Graphene Council, Friday, July 10, 2020
Graphene consists of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb structure. The material is of interest not only in basic research but also for various applications given to its unique properties, which include excellent electrical conductivity as well as astonishing strength and rigidity. Research teams around the world are working to further expand these characteristics by substituting carbon atoms in the crystal lattice with atoms of different elements. Moreover, the electric and magnetic properties can also be modified by the formation of pores in the lattice.

Ladder-like structure

Now, a team of researchers led by the physicist Professor Ernst Meyer of the University of Basel and the chemist Dr. Shi-Xia Liu from the University of Bern have succeeded in producing the first graphene ribbons whose crystal lattice contains both periodic pores and a regular pattern of nitrogen atoms. The structure of this new material resembles a ladder, with each rung containing two atoms of nitrogen.

In order to synthesize these porous, nitrogen-containing graphene ribbons, the researchers heated the individual building blocks step by step on a silver surface in a vacuum. The ribbons are formed at temperatures up to 220°C. Atomic force microscopy allowed the researchers not only to monitor the individual steps in the synthesis, but also to confirm the perfect ladder structure - and stability - of the molecule.

Extraordinary properties

Using scanning tunneling microscopy, the scientists from the Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute (SNI) at the University of Basel also demonstrated that these new graphene ribbons were no longer electrical conductors, like pure graphene, but actually behaved as semiconductors. Colleagues from the Universities of Bern and Warwick confirmed these findings by performing theoretical calculations of the electronic properties. "The semiconducting properties are essential for the potential applications in electronics, as their conductivity can be adjusted specifically," says Dr. Rémy Pawlak, first author of the study.

From the literature, it is known that a high concentration of nitrogen atoms in the crystal lattice causes graphene ribbons to magnetize when subjected to a magnetic field. "We expect these porous, nitrogen-doped graphene ribbons to display extraordinary magnetic properties," says Ernst Meyer. "In the future, the ribbons could therefore be of interest for applications in quantum computing."

Tags:  Department of Physics  Ernst Meyer  Graphene  Remy Pawlak  semiconductors  Shi-Xia Liu  Swiss Nanoscience Institute  University of Basel  University of Bern 

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Researchers Achieve Parallel Arrangement of Graphene in Organic Anticorrosive Coating

Posted By Graphene Council, Friday, July 10, 2020
The marine functional materials group led by Prof. WANG Liping at the Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering (NIMTE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), has successfully implemented the directional alignment of graphene nanosheets in organic polymer protective coatings.

This parallel arrangement of nanosheets can give full play to the barrier effect of graphene, thereby enhancing the anticorrosion of organic coatings. The study was published in Chemical Engineering Journal. 

Organic polymer protective coating is one of the most extensively employed and effective anticorrosion strategies for engineering and equipment. However, during the long-term service in the harsh marine environment, corrosive media (such as H2O, O2, Cl-, etc.) will have a strong permeability to the organic coating, resulting in the interface peeling of the coating and the serious corrosion of the substrate. 

Graphene nanosheets with high aspect ratio can effectively enhance their long-term corrosion resistance due to their excellent barrier properties, good chemical stability and antioxidant properties. In particular, the parallel arrangement of graphene in the resin and the optimization and regulation of the structure have always been the core technologies in this field, which are still in urgent need of revolution. 

Through simple dopamine oxidative self-polymerization and ionization reaction, researchers at NIMTE successfully obtained a novel cationic dopamine-reduced graphene oxide (DRGO+) nanosheet as a filler for epoxy coating.

By virtue of the presence of -NH3+ in dopamine coated on graphene, the DRGO+ nanosheets showed excellent dispersion in water-based epoxy emulsion for more than 45 days without precipitation, and could be self-aligned parallel arrangement in the composite coating under the electric field. 

The parallel arrangement of nanosheets immensely improved the barrier effect of graphene, and significantly extended the diffusion path of the corrosive medium, thereby reducing the corrosion rate of the organic coating. 

In addition, -NH3+ on the surface of the new cationic DRGO+ nanosheets could adsorb electrons and Cl-, eliminate local galvanic corrosion, and form a dense passivation layer on the steel surface. 

This work highlights the potential route for the large-scale fabrication of coatings with extraordinary long-term corrosion resistance.

Tags:  Chemical Engineering Journal  coatings  Graphene  nanosheets  Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engin  polymers  WANG Liping 

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ZEN Graphene Solutions Partners with Evercloak and NGen for Graphene in Cleantech Manufacturing Project

Posted By Graphene Council, Friday, July 10, 2020
ZEN Graphene Solutions Ltd. (“ZEN” or the “Company”) (TSXV:ZEN) is pleased to announce that Evercloak Inc. (Evercloak) and ZEN have been awarded $125,000 each as part of a Next Generation Manufacturing Canada (NGen) Project.  The project entitled “Advancing Large-Scale Graphene and Thin-Film Membrane Manufacturing” will support the scale up of graphene oxide (GO) production by ZEN to supply GO to Evercloak for their scale up and optimizing activities. NGen supports collaborative technology projects that enable the development of world-leading advanced manufacturing capabilities in Canada.

Francis Dubé, ZEN CEO commented, “ZEN is pleased to support Canadian graphene-based innovations and Evercloak is a wonderful example of what can be achieved with nanomaterials and Canadian entrepreneurship.  NGen supports the accelerated development of high potential technologies such as our graphene collaboration. We look forward to helping Evercloak bring breakthrough technology to everyday life.”

Evelyn Allen, Evercloak CEO stated, “Evercloak is thrilled to be working closely with ZEN to advance graphene-based manufacturing processes in Canada. The NGen Project funding will enable Evercloak to further optimize our membrane manufacturing process, while strengthening collaborations with ZEN, a Canadian graphene technology solutions company.”

“Graphene has long promised to deliver immense benefits across a diverse range of technology applications. This collaborative project between ZEN and Evercloak will fundamentally transform the manufacturing of graphene thin films and will bring forward environmentally friendly solutions in strategic clean technology areas including energy efficiency separation processes, batteries and solar cells to generate sustainable solutions for Canadians.” John Laughlin, CTO, NGen.

Evercloak’s patent-pending HydroAM printer is capable of depositing both 1D and 2D nanomaterials and transferring these ultra-thin films onto flexible substrates with a controlled density for various applications ranging from transparent conductors for flexible electronics to more efficient membranes for industrial separations. Through this grant, and in collaboration with Evercloak, ZEN will optimize and scale-up the electrochemical exfoliation (ECE) process that was developed by Prof. Aicheng Chen and his team at the University of Guelph to produce graphene oxide from its unique precursor Albany PureTM Graphite. The ECE process was designed to be scalable, low cost, low energy, and environmentally friendly to produce high quality, few-layer graphene oxide at ZEN’s Guelph facility.

Tags:  Evelyn Allen  Evercloak  Francis Dube  Graphene  graphene oxide  John Laughlin  membranes  Next Generation Manufacturing Canada  ZEN Graphene Solutions 

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Graphene: It is all about the toppings

Posted By Graphene Council, Thursday, July 9, 2020
Graphene consists of a single layer of carbon atoms. Exceptional electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties have made graphene one of the most studied materials at the moment. For many applications in electronics and energy technology, however, graphene must be combined with other materials: Since graphene is so thin, its properties drastically change when other materials are brought into direct contact with it.

However, combining graphene with other materials at the molecular level is difficult: The way graphene interacts with other materials depends not only on which material you choose, but also on how these materials are brought into contact with the graphene. Rather than sticking a finished material layer to the graphene, the appropriate atoms are brought into contact with the graphene in such a way that they "grow" on the graphene in the desired crystal structure.

Until now the mechanisms of the "growth" of such other materials on graphene have often remained unclear. A new joint study by research teams from the TU Wien and the University of Vienna for the first time observes now how indium oxide grows on graphene. The combination of indium oxide with graphene is important, for example for displays and sensors. The results have now been presented in the scientific journal "Advanced Functional Materials".

Graphene pizza

"As with a pizza, graphene technology is not only dependent on the graphene pizza base but also on its toppings," explains Bernhard C. Bayer from the Institute of Materials Chemistry at the TU Wien, who led the study. "How these toppings are applied to the graphene is, however, crucial."

In most cases, atoms in the gaseous state are condensed on the graphene. In the case of indium oxide, these are indium and oxygen. "But there are many parameters such as background pressure, temperature or the speed at which these atoms are directed at the graphene that influence the result drastically," says Bernhard Bayer. "It is therefore important to develop a fundamental understanding of the chemical and physical processes that actually take place. But to do this, you have to watch the growth process as it proceeds. "

This is exactly what the research team has now succeeded in doing: for the first time, the individual steps of growing indium oxide on graphene were observed in the electron microscope at atomic resolution.

Randomly distributed or perfectly aligned

"What was particularly interesting for us was the observation that, depending on the background pressure, the indium oxide crystallites either arrange themselves randomly on the graphene's crystal lattice or snap perfectly on one another like Lego bricks. This difference in arrangement can have a major impact on the application properties of the combined materials," says Kenan Elibol, first author of the study. The new findings will be useful to make the integration of graphene with other materials more predictable and controllable with respect to future application requirements.

Tags:  Advanced Functional Materials  Bernhard C. Bayer  Graphene  indium oxide  Institute of Materials Chemistry  TU Wien  University of Vienna 

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Samsung Leads Semiconductor Paradigm Shift with New Material Discovery

Posted By Graphene Council, Wednesday, July 8, 2020
Researchers at the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) have unveiled the discovery of a new material, called amorphous boron nitride (a-BN), in collaboration with Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) and the University of Cambridge. Published in the journal Nature, the study has the potential to accelerate the advent of the next generation of semiconductors.

2D Materials – The Key to Overcoming Scalability Challenges

Recently, SAIT has been working on the research and development of two-dimensional (2D) materials – crystalline materials with a single layer of atoms. Specifically, the institute has been working on the research and development of graphene, and has achieved groundbreaking research outcomes in this area such as the development of a new graphene transistor as well as a novel method of producing large-area, single-crystal wafer-scale graphene. In addition to researching and developing graphene, SAIT has been working to accelerate the material’s commercialization.

“To enhance the compatibility of graphene with silicon-based semiconductor processes, wafer-scale graphene growth on semiconductor substrates should be implemented at a temperature lower than 400°C.” said Hyeon-Jin Shin, a graphene project leader and Principal Researcher at SAIT. “We are also continuously working to expand the applications of graphene beyond semiconductors.”

2D Material Transformed – Amorphous Boron Nitride

The newly discovered material, called amorphous boron nitride (a-BN), consists of boron and nitrogen atoms with an amorphous molecule structure. While amorphous boron nitride is derived from white graphene, which includes boron and nitrogen atoms arranged in a hexagonal structure, the molecular structure of a-BN in fact makes it uniquely distinctive from white graphene.

Amorphous boron nitride has a best-in-class ultra-low dielectric constant of 1.78 with strong electrical and mechanical properties, and can be used as an interconnect isolation material to minimize electrical interference. It was also demonstrated that the material can be grown on a wafer scale at a low temperature of just 400°C. Thus, amorphous boron nitride is expected to be widely applied to semiconductors such as DRAM and NAND solutions, and especially in next generation memory solutions for large-scale servers.

“Recently, interest in 2D materials and the new materials derived from them has been increasing. However, there are still many challenges in applying the materials to existing semiconductor processes.” said Seongjun Park, Vice President and Head of Inorganic Material Lab, SAIT. “We will continue to develop new materials to lead the semiconductor paradigm shift.”

Tags:  2D Materials  Graphene  Hyeon-Jin Shin  journal Nature  Samsung  Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology  Semiconductor  Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology  University of Cambridge 

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Posted By Graphene Council, Wednesday, July 8, 2020
Zen Graphene Solutions Ltd. (“Zen Graphene” or the “Company”) (TSXV:ZEN) is pleased to announce the closing of the second tranche, comprised of 1,621,175 units, of its previously announced private placement of units (the “Offering”). The Company raised total gross proceeds of $2,049,999.80 under the Offering, which will be used to fund ongoing work on the Albany Graphite Project including graphene research and scale up, COVID-19 initiatives and other graphene applications development and for general corporate purposes. The Board of directors wishes to thank all the long-term shareholders and new shareholders who participated in the Offering.

Francis Dubé, CEO commented: “With this private placement now completed, the company is in a strong financial position to accelerate the many research and development projects it has underway and explore new opportunities that are being considered.”

The total Offering consisted of the issuance of 3,416,666 units (“Units”) at a price of $0.60 per Unit, for aggregate gross proceeds of $2,049,999.80. Each Unit consisted of one common share of the Company (“Common Share”) and one half of one non-transferable share purchase warrant (“Warrant”). Each whole Warrant will entitle the holder thereof to acquire one additional Common Share at an exercise price of $0.80 per Warrant, exercisable for a period of twenty-four months from the closing of the Offering (the “Exercise Period”).

All Warrants issued in connection with the Offering are subject to an acceleration clause. If the Company’s share price trades at or above $1.00 per share for a period of ten (10) consecutive trading days during the Exercise Period, the Company may accelerate the expiry date of the Warrants to 30 calendar days from the date on which written notice is given by the Company to the holders of the Warrants.
The Common Shares and the Warrants issued in connection with the second tranche of the Offering will be subject to a hold period until November 7, 2020 in accordance with applicable securities laws.

Tags:  COVID-19  Francis Dube  Graphene  Graphite  Healthcare  ZEN Graphene Solutions 

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