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Glossary of Graphene Terms and Definitions
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Graphene Related Terms and Definitions



3D Graphene

A three-dimensional honeycomb of hexagonally arranged carbon has been termed 3D graphene.

Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing) (AM)

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is an umbrella term for a collection of several technologies. Most AM is simply 2D printing processes repeated in an iterative fashion to build up a 3-dimensional part. AM begins with a computer dissecting a 3-D digital model (also called CAD data) of the desired end product into thin wafers and then building these wafers using plastics or other materials layer by layer into the final part. Graphene's role in AM is increase the number benefits to the final product or improve on the performance of today's products as well as mitigating or reducing the negatives.

Anodic Bonding

The microelectronics industry uses anodic bonding to bond silicon wafers to glass to protect them from humidity or contaminations. When employing this technique to produce graphene, graphite is first pressed onto a glass substrate. Then a high voltage is applied between the graphite and a metal back contact, and the glass substrate is then heated.

Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)

AFMs map the surface of a material by recording the vertical displacement necessary to maintain a constant force on the cantilevered probe tip as it scans a sample's surface. In this way, AFMs can image the surface of atom.

Ball Milling

Ball milling is a process for grinding a material. It involves A slightly inclined or horizontal rotating cylinder that is partially filled with balls,which grind material to the necessary fineness by friction and impact with the tumbling balls. A ball-milling treatment can help to fabricate graphene composites of variety of matrixes.


A bandgap is an energy range in which electrons cannot exist. A bandgap is required to enable electronic switching. Semiconductor materials like silicon are used in electronics because while it conducts it electrons, it can also act as an insulator--it has a bandgap. Graphene without any alteration does not have a bandgap, making it a pure conductor.

Bilayer Graphene

This is simply two layers of graphene. This type of graphene was synthesized by Geim and Novosolev in their first experiments and would fall into the category of Very Few Layers (VFL) graphene.


A biosensor is an analytical device that can detect a biomolecule-related element with an appropriate transducer to generate a measurable signal from the sample. In general, graphene possesses attractive qualities for sensors and biosensors, such as ultra-high charge mobility, transparency, large surface area, non-toxicity, high-tensile strength and high thermal conductivity to name a few. However, for graphene to maintain these properties, it has to be kept in a pretty pure form.

Black Phosphorus (Phosphorene)

Black phosphorus is the thermodynamically stable form of phosphorus at room temperature and pressure. In 2014, researchers were able to exfoliate the material to thin films just 10 to 20 atoms thick. Not only does it have an inherent bandgap unlike graphene, but that bandgap is also highly tunable, depending on the number of layers used. However, the property that really sets black phosphorus apart from graphene and nearly all two-dimensional materials is its intrinsically strong, in-plane anisotropy. That means its properties are directionally dependent, like the grain of a piece of wood.

Bottom-Up Manufacturing

Bottom-up manufacturing involves building up your product up, atom by atom, often through guided self-assembly. CVD deposition techniques would be considered bottom-up manufacturing because the layers grow themselves.

Bulk Supply

Bulk supply is a term that is associated with applications that require material levels reaching many tons per year of graphene, such as nanocomposite inks. This means that the costs of these materials are much lower and therefore lower grades of graphene.

Carboxyl/Aminated Graphene

This is a type of graphene that has been functionalized with carboxylic acid on its surface.

Chemical Reduction of Graphene Oxide (rGO)

This is a method for producing graphene. The rGO technique and its variants are based on the Brodie method, which was later developed into the Hummers method and subsequent variants. rGO employs graphite as a feedstock in which it is mixed with sulfuric acid to serve as an intercalating agent and potassium permanganate as an oxidant. This mixture is heated at high temperatures to produce graphene oxide (GO). At this point, the GO is reduced to graphene either chemically or thermally and with further steps of sonication, rinsing and dispersion.

Conductive Ink

Conductive ink is an ink that results in a printed object capable of conducting electricity. Graphene based conductive inks have been around commercially since at least as early as 2009. Graphene based inks are generally significantly cheaper than silver and copper based inks.

CVD Graphene

Chemical vapour deposition, or CVD, is a method which can produce relatively high quality graphene, potentially on a large scale. The CVD process is reasonably straightforward, although some specialist equipment is necessary, and in order to create good quality graphene it is important to strictly adhere to guidelines set concerning gas volumes, pressure, temperature, and time duration.

Dental Graphene Composites

Materials based on graphene oxide are under development for use in dental composites. The expectation is that they will lead to fixed dental prostheses with increased longevity and improved clinical function.

Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Reactors

Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma reactors are a type of reactor that has recently been used by industry to produce graphene commercially. In contrast to other methods, DBD plasma reactors lead to a standalone graphene product. The other methods employ plasma-assisted methods that are more applicable to academic interests or are restricted to deposition onto a specific surface.

Dielectric Substrates

These are substrates on which graphene can be grown directly upon and include materials such as boron nitride, silicon, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, gallium nitride, magnesium oxide and silicon nitride, to name a few. While this has been a focus of much research, the results thus far have been mixed, proving difficult to get both continuous and highly conductive films.

Direct Chemical Synthesis (Pyrolysis)

This is a method for producing graphene. One type of direct chemical synthesis is the so-called solvo-thermal synthesis. In these processes, spontaneous crystallizations occur from liquid when they are in sealed autoclave vessels. Basically, you combine a carbon source like a sodium metal to give a free carbon to sodium chloride. More specifically, you would takelaboratory-grade ethanol and sodium as starting materials to synthesize sodium ethoxide. Then what’s called pyrolysis is performed, which essentially is thermal decomposition of material, to a fused array of graphene sheets that can be easily dispersed using mild sonication.


Dry Exfoliation

This is a method for producing graphene. This involves splitting single layers from multi-layered graphite. Achieving single layers typically involves multiple exfoliation steps, each producing a slice with a few layers until only one remains. The “scotch tape” method is an example.


Elastomer, any rubbery material composed of long chainlike molecules, or polymers, that are capable of recovering their original shape after being stretched to great extents—hence the name elastomer, from “elastic polymer.” Under normal conditions the long molecules making up an elastomeric material are irregularly coiled. With the application of force, however, the molecules straighten out in the direction in which they are being pulled. Upon release, the molecules spontaneously return to their normal compact, random arrangement.

Electrochemical Exfoliation

This is a method for producing graphene. In this process, a voltage is applied across an electrolyte (sulfuric acid or aqueous inorganic salt solution, to name just two). This leads to a reaction in which the electrolyte serves as the tool for exfoliation. This is a simple and scalable method that can produce fairly high quality graphene.

Electron Mobility

This is a measurement of how fast an electron can move through a metal or semiconductor when it is being pulled by an electric field. Graphene has one of the fastest electron mobilities ever measured.

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)

Electrically conductive films are an important material for packaging sensitive electronics and in other industries like automotive.

Epitaxial Graphene

Epitaxial graphene growth on silicon carbide (SiC) by thermal decomposition is a methods to produce large-scale few-layer graphene (FLG). Graphene is one of the most promising nanomaterials for the future because of its various characteristics, like strong stiffness and high electric and thermal conductivitiy. Still, reproducible production of Graphene is difficult, thus lots of different techniques have been developed. The main advantage of epitaxial graphene growth on silicon carbide over other techniques is to obtain graphene layers directly on a semiconducting or semi-insulating substrate which is commercially available.

Epitaxial Growth on SiC

This is a method for producing graphene. Graphene is also synthesizable by annealing of SiC crystal at a very elevated temperature (~2000 K) in ultra-high vacuum. Thermal desorption of Si from the top layers of SiC crystalline wafer yields a multilayered graphene structure that behaves like graphene. The number of layers can be controlled by limiting time or temperature of the heating treatment. The quality and the number of layers in the samples depend on the SiC face used for their growth.

Exfoliated graphite

Exfoliated graphite (EG) refers to graphite that has a degree of separation of a substantial portion of the carbon layers in the graphite

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)

Graphene that is used as pesticides are subject to the requirements of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA section 2(u) and 3(a)). If their use as a pesticide will result in residues in food or animal feed, a tolerance (maximum residue level) must be established.

Few-Layer Graphene (FLG)

This is essentially a subset of multi-layer graphene with the layer numbers ranging from 2 to about 5.

Field-Effect Transistors (FET)

The field-effect transistor (FET) is the most ubiquitous transistor in electronics. In a FET device, a channel is connected to contact pads called source and drain electrodes on both sides of the channel. This channel is also connected to a top gate electrode with a dielectric layer between the channel and the gate electrode. Current flows through the channel and is associated with the source-drain voltage (VDS). The electric field that is supplied through the gate voltage (VG) can control the VDS.

Flexible Electronics

Flexible electronics have made graphene an attractive alternative in transparent electrodes and RF transistors. Graphene is also making some impact in the application of flexible memory devices.

Flexible Graphene Heaters

These areflexible, transparent heaters based on large-scale graphene films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on Cu foils. Graphene-based, flexible, transparent heaters are expected to find uses in a broad range of applications, including automobile defogging/deicing systems and heatable smart windows.

Fluroinated Graphene (Fluorographene) (CF)

Fluroinated graphene or 'fluorographene' (CF) is the 2D counterpart of 3D graphite fluoride. It contains fluorine atoms attached to the carbon surface of the graphene. It is also a 2D analogue of teflon (PTFE) and as such has expected uses in lubricant applications. Fluorographene is a high-quality insulator (with an optical band gap of 3 eV. It inherits the similar mechanical strength and elasticity of graphene.


There are a number of defintions of fullerence and related structures. Generally, buckminsterfullerene, or the buckyball, is taken to refer only to C60 molecule, which is a somewhat spherical, hollow, carbon molecule consisting of 60 carbon atoms arranged in interlocking hexagons and pentagons. This structure resembles a geodesic dome like those created by Buckminster Fuller, thus the name.


The modification of a material by chemical or other means to achieve a desired property.

Functionalized Graphene

Graphene and its derivatives such as functionalized graphene are considered to hold significant promise in numerous applications.


Germanene is a 2D crystal made from the element germanium. It has a structure similar to graphene. The element germanium is widely used today in fiberoptics, infrared optics, electronics and other applications. Germanene is expected to be a silicon replacement in both electronics and solar cells. It conducts electrons ten times fasterthan silicon, is more stable and absorbs and emits light better.

Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

GHS is an internationally agreed-upon standard managed by the United Nations that was set up to replace the assortment of hazardous material classification and labelling schemes previously used around the world.


Graphane is a form of surface hydrogenated graphene. Graphane is quite similar to graphene in many properties but is an insulator and not a conductor.



Graphene is a single layer (monolayer) of carbon atoms, tightly bound in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. It is an allotrope of carbon in the form of a plane of sp2-bonded atoms with a molecular bond length of 0.142 nanometres.


Graphene powder is the ideal material for forming conductive composites, solar panels, composites with a barrier effect, transparent electrodes, nanocomposites, thermal radiation, capacitors, conductive inks and organic semi-conductive applications, etc.


Graphene wafers are just like the wafers that serve as the substrate for microelectronic devices built in and upon the wafer. But instead of beingthin slice of semiconductor, such as a crystalline silicon (c-Si), graphene is used. Currently, they are able to batch process 6" wafers out of graphene using CVD processes and they are now attempting to create 12" wafers with graphene.

Graphene Aerogel

Graphene aerogel is one of the world’s lightest materials, with an extraordinarily low density. This low density, in combination with the hydrophobic properties of graphene sheets, makes graphene aerogel a promising candidate for oil absorption. The capacity of absorption approaches several hundred times (or two orders of magnitude) higher than that of commercially-available materials for environmental cleanup.

Graphene Anode Materials

Batteries and other energy storage devices have two electrodes: the anode and cathode. The anode is the positively charged electrode. Different graphene materials have been used to cover the surface of these anodes to increase their surface area and thereby increase their ability to store a charge.

Graphene Batteries

Graphene battery technology has a similar structure to traditional batteries in that they have two electrodes and an electrolyte solution to facilitate ion transfer. The main difference between solid-state batteries and graphene-based batteries is in the composition of one or both electrodes.

Graphene Coatings

The vast selection of extraordinary properties that graphene possesses can open the door to many interesting types of coatings, paints, inks and more. Graphene's high resistivity can make for durable coatings that do not crack and are resistant to water and oil; its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity can be used to make various conductive paints, and a strong barrier effect can contribute to extraordinary anti-oxidant, scratch-resistant and anti-UVA coatings.

Graphene Composites

Graphene composites are a material containing graphene imbedded into a carrier resin or other matrix materials.These materials have a huge amount of outstanding qualities; strength, flexibility, lightweight and conductivity. One of the simplest and most effective ways of harnessing the potential of graphene is to combine it with existing products - so called composite materials. The impact of graphene-based composites is set to reverberate throughout countless industries, enhancing performance and increasing application possibilities.

Graphene Derivatives

New carbon materials have recently been derived from graphene theoretically and experimentally, hydrogenated graphene (graphane), fluorinated graphene (fluorographene), oxidized graphene (graphene oxide), and graphene introduced by acetylenic chains (graphyne and graphdiyne), which may be called graphene derivatives.

Graphene Dispersing Agent

In order to obtain good dispersions of graphene in a compound, dispersing agents like stearic acid and oleic acid are used.

Graphene Dispersion

A graphene dispersion is like any other dispersion in that it's a system in which distributed particles of one material are dispersed in a continuous phase of another material.

Graphene Enhanced Rubber

Researchers have discovered that adding as little as one-tenth of 1% of graphene to traditional rubber enhances both the strength and flexibility of the material. The addition of even small amounts of graphene to a rubber matrix increases tensile strength and elasticity by up to 50%, which has implications for a broad array of industrial and consumer applications.

Graphene Epoxy Dispersion

Dispersing graphene through an epoxy resin is not as easy as it might seem. The problem is that the graphene flakes can agglomerate together and effectively turn back into graphite. This challenge has largely been overcome and now the attractive properties of graphene like strength, conductivity, thermal management can be transferred to an epoxy resin.

Graphene Fiber

While graphene has been used thus far to add new properties to reinforcement fibers used in composites, there has remained interest in developing graphene fibers that alone could act as the bulk fiber reinforcement material for future composites.

Graphene Fiber Optics Components

As a result of graphene's excellent properties as saturable absorbers, it is also a key enabler of passive mode-locking of fiber lasers. These mode-locking fiber lasers are used in a wide range of applications such as sources in communication systems, as spectroscopic tools in the laboratory for time-resolved studies of fast nonlinear phenomena in semiconductors and as a source for pulse sensors.

Graphene Film

Graphene films are large-area films made from graphene. There are two approaches to making these large-area graphene films. One is chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and the other is the chemicalassembly of small graphene sheets. Only CVD synthesis is capable of producing graphene films without defects, impurities, grain boundaries, multiple domains, structural disorders, and wrinkles that are necessary for the applications that these films are targeted for.

Graphene FL (3-10)

This refers tographene that consists of only 3 to 10 layers of graphene (Few Layers). This is one step down from Very Few Layer (VFL) graphene that consists of 1 to 3 layers

Graphene Flakes (GNFs)

Small pieces (flakes) of graphene. These are easier to make compared to large graphene sheets,but they still retain many of graphene's attributes (these depend on the flake's quality and shape).

Graphene Foam

Graphene foam is a solid, open-cell foam produced through the use of single-layer sheets of graphene. It is expected to have applications as substrate material for the electrode of lithium-ion batteries.

Graphene Heating Film

These films are essentially plastic films, covered with a patterned metal coating. The metal pattern is the main conductor of electricity on the film. The film is also coated with a single-layer CVD graphene sheet. The high thermal conductivity of the graphene transfers the heat to the air in a uniform method.

Graphene Ink

Graphene inks are essentially conductive inks made in part with graphene. These graphene-enabled conductive inks are useful for a range of applications, including printed and flexible electronics such as radio frequency identification (RFID) antennas, transistors or photovoltaic cells.

Graphene Masterbatch

A graphene masterbatch (MB) is an additive for plastic used for imparting other properties to plastics. A graphene masterbatch is a concentrated mixture of graphene additives encapsulated during a heat process into a carrier resin which is then cooled and cut into a granular shape.

Graphene Membranes

These membranes contain functionalized or pristine graphene. They are able to selectively uptake and transport of molecular or ionic species. These types of membranes that are able to sieve ionic and molecular species from aqueous solutions are essential for processes such as water purification and desalination, sensing, and energy production.

Graphene Nanocoil

When graphene has defects in its hexagonal grid of carbon atoms, it can sprial along its edge so that forms a coil shape. When a voltage is applied to the coil, the current flows around the spiral and creates a magnetic field. This material could be used for producing magnetic fields like those that are used in loudspeakers

Graphene Nanomaterials

This is an overarching term for the collection of 2D materials that contain the word ''graphene'', including multilayered materials (less than about 10), chemically modified forms (GO, rGO), and materials made using graphene, graphene oxide, or another graphene material as a precursor.

Graphene Nanopaper

Graphene nanopapers are thin films made of graphene oxide or their derivative nanoplatelets, which often are tightly packed to afford superior performances such as mechanical strength and stiffness.

Graphene Nanoribbons (GNRs)

Thin (under 50 nm usually) strips of graphene. Graphene nanoribbons have a bandgap, and the width and edges of the ribbons change their electronic properties.

Graphene Nanosheet

This is a commonly used term to refer to a single-atom-thick sheet of hexagonally arranged, sp2-bonded carbon atoms that is not an integral part of a carbon material, but is freely suspended or adhered on a foreign substrate and has a lateral dimension less than 100 nm. However, this is addition of the “nano” prefix is unnecessary because all graphene sheets are nanometers in thickiness. In addition, it interferes with the logical understanding of the important subset of graphene materials with lateral dimension in the nanoscale (<100 nm).

Graphene Nylon Composite Silk

Coating graphene sheets on a silk fibre surface provides a new approach for developing electrically conductive biomaterials, such as tissue engineering scaffolds, or for developing bendable electrodes, and wearable biomedical devices.

Graphene Oxide (GO)

A compound of graphene, hydrogen and oxygen. GO is relatively easy to make and has many applications. GO can be reduced to create lower-quality graphene sheets called reduced-GO (r-GO).

Graphene Oxide Aqueous Solution

This Is graphene oxide that has been dispersed into a water solution.

Graphene Oxide Dispersion

A term to describe getting graphene oxide(GO) into a well dispersed, liquid state, sometimes referred to a getting the GO into suspension or getting it into solution.

Graphene Oxide Flake

Graphene oxide (GO) flakes are graphene that has been functionalized with oxygen and hydrogen. These GO flakes are inexpensive and have been used to make a conductive graphene paper and also as a filler in advanced composites.

Graphene Oxide Nanopowder

Graphene material can be prepared in various physical forms including as a dry (usually black) powder.

Graphene Oxide Paste

Graphene can be produced in paste form that often has a dull reddish brown color. The benefit of paste over powder is that makes transport easier.

Graphene Polylactide Composite Filament

Graphene polyactide composite filament is a material designed to enable 3D print electrically conductive components using almost any commercially available desktop 3D printer.

Graphene Pressure Sensor

These are sensors enabled by graphene that detect changes of pressure. There are wide variety of pressure sensors that have used graphene to improve their sensitivity, including microelectromechanical (MEMs) sensors, piezoresistive sensors, and fiber-tip-based pressure sensors.

Graphene Quantum Dots (GQDs)

A small (2-10 nm diameter) particle made from graphene with semiconductor electronic properties somewhat between that of a bulk material and a discrete molecule.

Graphene Sensors

In general, 2D materials-such as graphene-are very sensitive to a large number of surface atoms because its two-dimensional structure means the entire material volume acts as a sensor surface. This makes them ideally sensitive to the external environment, such as temperature, chemical substances, magnetism, and mechanical forces. This has led to the development on a research level of advanced 2D material based sensors for use as humidity sensors, gas sensors, biosensors, and strain sensors.

Graphene Superlattices

A structure made of aligned, alternating layers of graphene, often combing an insulator like hexagonal boron nitride with a conductor like graphene.

Graphene Thermal-Dissipation Sheet

Graphene exhibits an extremely high in-plane thermal conductivity, which gives it remarkable thermal management capabilities in applications in which you need to spread out and dissipate heat, such as electronics.

Graphene Touch Sensor

Touch sensors are the devices that enable us to use touch-screen displays. The opportunity for graphene in touch sensors is as a replacement for Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) as a transparent conductor to control display pixels.

Graphene Transparent Conductive Film (TCFs)

Optoelectronic devices, including organic light‐emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic solar cells (OSCs), field effect transistors (FETs), and smart windows depend on transparent electrodes. Currently, conductive metal oxideslike indium tin oxide (ITO) dominate the market of the commercial transparent electrode. ITO is the most widely used to fabricate transparent conductive films (TCFs). Graphene could potentially replace ITO in the fabrication of the TCFs.

Graphene Very Few Layers (VFL) (1-3)

This refers to high quality graphene that consists of only 1 to 3 layers of graphene (Very Few Layers)

Graphene-Based Additives

Graphene can be used as an additive to other materials to improve the mechanical performance of materials in terms of strength, hardness, flexibility, impermeability and protection against external factors. In manufacturing of these other materials, grpahene canimproves the yield of the raw materials when it is used as an additive.

Graphene-Enhanced Antennas

A graphene-enhanced antenna is a proposed high-frequency antenna based on graphene that would enhance radio communications. The unique structure of graphene would enable these enhancements. Ultimately, the choice of graphene for the basis of this nano antenna was due to the behavior of electrons. This is currently[when?] being researched and graphene appears to be a feasible basis for antennas.

Graphene-Enhanced Plastic

This is plastic in which graphene has been added to provide improved mechanical properties to the plastic, such thermal and electrical conductivity or gas impermeability


The development, growth, or perfection of graphene layers during the processing of disordered carbonaceous solids. The graphene layers may occur within a 2D (sheet-like) or 3D carbon material.


Graphite is one of the most common carbon allotropes and has been in use for centuries. In top-down manufacturing techniques graphite is the source material for producing graphene.

Graphite Nanoplatelets (GNPs)

A nanoplatelet is a small disk-shaped particle. In theory, graphene nanoplatelets are not necessarily disk shaped. But in practice, most companies offereing platelets are simply offering flakes that are not necessarily disk shaped.Because of their unique nanoscale size, shape, and material composition, graphene nanoplatelets can be used to improve the properties of a wide range of polymeric materials, including thermoplastic and thermoset composites, natural or synthetic rubber, thermoplastic elastomers, adhesives, paints and coatings. The graphene nanoplates are offered in a granular form that in water, organic solvents and polymers with the right choice of dispersion aids, equipment and techniques.

Graphite Nanosheet

This refers to 2D graphite materials having a thickness and/or lateral dimension less than 100 nm. The use of nanoscale terminology here can be used to help distinguish these new ultrathin forms from conventional finely milled graphite powders, whose thickness is typically >100 nm. However, a more acceptable alternative term is 'ultrathin graphite'', though ''ultra'' is less specific than ''nano'' in describing the maximum thickness.

Graphite Oxide

This is a bulk solid made by oxidation of graphite through processes that functionalize the basal planes and increase the interlayer spacing. Graphite oxide can be exfoliated in solution to form (monolayer) graphene oxide or partially exfoliated to form few-layer graphene oxide.


Graphyne is very similar to graphene-it is a 2D sheet made from carbon atoms. But in graphyne, there are both double and triple bonds between the atoms, which makes for a less ordered arrangement than graphene, which has only triple bonds between carbon atoms.

Hall Effect

The Hall effect occurs when a magnetic field focused on a conductor causes an electromagnetic force that deflects charge carriers in a current and leads to a measurable voltage.

Hexagonal Boron Nitride (or White Graphene) (h-BN, HBN)

Hexagonal Boron-nitride is a synthetic compound of boron and nitride atoms (in equal amounts). BN and carbon share a similar structure lattice, and BN exists in several types: hexagonal, cubic, amorphous and more. Hexagonal BN (hBN) is the most widely used BN polymorph (a material that exists in more than one form or crystal structure). It is an insulator and a good lubricant. When it is used with the conductor graphene, they together can produce a semiconductor material that has electronic applications.

High Strength Metallurgical Graphene (HSMG)

Recently, alternative industrial methods for manufacturing mono- and multilayer graphene sheets have been developed by scientists of Lodz University of Technology in Poland. This processing is based on the controlled carbon precipitation from liquid metallic matrices.Prepared graphene sheets have exhibited extremely high mechanical strength and are known as High Strength Metallurgical Graphene (HSMG®).

High-Speed Sintering (HSS)

High-speed sintering (HSS) is a similar technology to selective laser sintering. It relies on powder being selectively coated via an inkjet in an infrared (IR) absorbing ink, before being fused together as an IR lamp sweeps over the powder bed. Given graphene is a black material, applications in HSS would presumably involve graphene being added via the inkjet.

Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is a highly pure and ordered form of synthetic graphite.

Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)

Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is current industry choice for the material used as a transparent conductor to control display pixels. ITO is fairly expensive and brittle, and a suitable alternative material is continuously searched for.

Injection Moulding (IM)

Injection moulding is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting molten material into a mould. (IM) is highly relevant for a graphene producer, as it provides a solid entry point into the polymer market from the traditional standard and engineering plastic additive viewpoint.

Integrated Circuits (IC)

An IC is a small wafer, usually made of silicon, that can hold anywhere from hundreds to millions of transistors, resistors, and capacitors. One of the early impetuses for using CVD graphene in electronics was to use it to create wafer-scale integrated circuits. IBM and Samsung have long been behind this line of research. This makes sense since the closest analog to the large wafer of silicon is a large sheet of graphene grown through a CVD process.

Laser Ablation

Laser ablation is the use of a laser beam to remove material from a solid surface. If irradiation results in the detachment of an entire or partial layer, the process is called photoexfoliation. With laser ablation, laser pulses are used to ablate/exfoliate graphite flakes to create graphene. It is possible to determine the number of layers of graphene by controlling the laser energy.

Light Emitting Diode (LED)

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are solid-state devices that make light via the movement of electrons through a semiconductor. LEDs have been around since the early 1960s and have a wide variety of applications at this point. They are used in displays, and are also used as a replacement in many incandescent light applications, offering lower energy consumption, longer lifetimes, improved physical robustness, along with smaller size than incandescent light. In the area of ultraviolet LED applications,CVD graphene has a real opportunity. Currently, the transparency of metal oxide conductors is poor in the UV and near-UV region of the spectrum. This negatively impacts the efficiency and brightness of the LEDs. This means there is a real market pull for a transparent conductor in the UV region and CVD graphene is the perfect candidate. In addition, CVD graphene has high thermal conductivity compared to metal oxide transparent conductors. This translates into better heat dissipation and improved diffusion efficiency of CVD graphene over metal oxide transparent conductors.

Liquid-Phase Exfoliation

This is a method for producing graphene. Sound energy—known as sonication—is used to create small graphene sheets. While this method is scalable, the transparent conducing films made from it suffer from large numbers of intersheet junctions. As a result, the transparency of these sheets is below 90% with high resistance of 5,000 to 8,000 Ω/sq.

Magnetitc Field Sensors (Magnetometer)

Magnetic field sensors detect magnetic fields, as the name suggests. These types of sensors are used in a number of applications but may have a long-term application in the field of Spintronics.

Mechanically Exfoliated Single Crystal Graphene

Mechanical exfoliation was the method that actually led to the isolation of graphene (in fact using adhesive tape to peel apart layers of graphite). While it is still an important method for producing high-quality graphene and other 2D materials, it is not suitable for large-scale production of graphene.


Graphene synthesized through CVD processes has been demonstrated to be an effective material for flash memory. The potential for CVD graphene in memory is not limited to just flash. Research has looked at whether it can be an alternative material for magnetic hard disk drives (HDD). Of course, to be a replacement for HDD, graphene has to exhibit magnetic properties. This magnetic property was only teased out of graphene back in 2013.


Memristors change their resistance depending on the direction and amount of voltage applied, and they remember this resistance when the voltage is removed. Most memory types store data as charge. But memristors would enable what’s called a resistive RAM, a nonvolatile memory that stores data as resistance instead of charge. Graphene oxide has been used to make these memristors, promising devices that are easier and cheaper to make.

Micro-mechanical Exfoliation

This method of creating graphene is sometimes called the "Scotch Tape" method and was the original method used to exfoliate graphite. Essentially, the top layer of a graphite crystal is removed by adhesive tape. It is then pressed against a substrate of choice. If the adhesion of the bottom graphene layer to the substrate is stronger than the interaction between the layers of graphite, a layer of graphene can be transferred to the substrate.

Microwave-Assisted Deposition

This is a type of plasma-enahnced CVD synthesis of graphene. In this process, high-energy electrons are used to provide the activation energy. When the plasma gases interact with the carbon sources, it breaks down the bands of reactive gases and thereby increases the chemical activity of the precursor gases. After annealing, the graphene forms on the substrate surface.

Molded Graphene

This refers to graphene that had been softened by a solvent and laid over a substrate that served as a form. In this way the solvent-soaked graphene could take on the shape of the substrate.

Molecular Beam Eptiaxy (MBE)

A vacuum deposition technology that grows graphene layer by layer at lower temperatures than CVD.

Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2)

A 2D material made from sheets of molybdenum atoms sandwiched between two sulfur atoms. MoS2 has a bandgap and is considered more useful than graphene for some applications such as transistors and solar panels. But that optimisim for its electronic properties started to wane somewhat when it was revealed that MoS2 contained traps—impurities or dislocations that can trap an electron or hole and hold it until a pair is completed—that limit its electronic properties.

Monolayer Graphene

This refers to a single atomic layer of graphene. It takes the form of carbon atoms attached to one another into a honeycomb structure. This is the type of graphene that was first synthesized.

Multilayer Graphene (MLG)

This refers to 2D (sheet-like) material, either as a free-standing flake or substrate-bound coating, consisting of a small number (between 2 and about 10) of well-defined, countable, stacked graphene layers of extended lateral dimension.

Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes are basically like Russian dolls made out of SWNTs-concentric cylindrical graphitic tubes. In these more complex structures, the different SWNTs that form the MWNT may have quite different structures (length and chirality). MWNTs are typically 100 times longer than they are wide and have outer diameters mostly in the tens of nanometers. Although it is easier to produce significant quantities of MWNTs than SWNTs, their structures are less well understood than single-wall nanotubes because of their greater complexity and variety.


Nanopowders are powdered materials with individual particles in nanometer scale or materials with crystalline in nanometer scale. Nanoparticles (NPs) are made up of a large amount of atoms or molecules bonded with each other with a total size varying from 1 nm to around 100 nm. Due to their very small sizes, NPs possess an extraordinarily high surface area-to-volume ratio, which changes their physical-chemical properties compared to their macroscale counterparts.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Both US and EU OSHA bodies have published good practices guide on how to work safely with manufactured nanomaterials, including graphene. OSHA has taken the official position that exposure to nanomaterials, such as nano-titanium dioxide, carbon nanotubes and graphene can give rise to various kinds of lung damage.

Optical Modulators

Optical modulators have two basic element. The first element is awaveguide. The second element is a transistor-like device that can shift the phase of light that passes through it. Just before the point in the light path where the light wave is to be modulated, the waveguide divides into two branches. One branch contains the phase-shifting capacitor. Metal contacts at the top of the device apply the electrical signal that is to be converted to an optical signal. The abiliity of optical modulcators to encode electrical signals onto light increases the speed of optical communications and bring light-based data transfer down to the scale of computer chips.

Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

OLEDs employ organic compounds that light up when fed electricity. This means that OLEDs unlike LEDs can be made to be extremely thin, flexible, and even rollable. the use of CVD graphene for OLED lighting is as an alternative transparent conductor material. While graphene has high charge carrier mobility, it suffers from low carrier concentrations. As a result, graphene’s overall performance as an electrode has to be improved in OLED lighting applications.


Photodetectors detect light. Graphene’s properties as an extreme-broadband absorber of light enables photodetection for visible, infrared, microwave and terahertz frequencies all while providing very high photo-response speeds.


Graphene-based photovoltaics operate in fundamentally the same way that today's inorganic/silicon solar cells do. The difference is that some of the materials that are currently being used in today's solar cells are replaced with graphene derivatives. The use of graphene as a transparent, conducting electrode in solar cells is one of the most researched application areas for graphene in photovoltaics. Graphene has been and continues to be used as a transparent conducting electrode material in various types of inorganic, organic, and dye-sensitized solar cells.


A material that generates an electric charge when mechanically deformed. This also works in the opposite effect so that when an external electric field is applied to piezoelectric materials they mechanically deform. Research has shown that graphene can be engineered to take on piezoelectric properties.

Pillared Grapehene Oxide (GO)

These materials basically have a pillars placed between two layers of graphene material. Pillared graphene is a hybrid carbon, structure consisting of an oriented array of carbon nanotubes connected at each end to a sheet of graphene. It was first described theoretically by George Froudakis and colleagues of the University of Crete in Greece in 2008. Pillared graphene has not yet been synthesised in the laboratory. The expectation is that this will give the graphene a greater surface area that should improve their storage capability.

Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD)

Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) is a method that can be used to produce graphene commercially, but it is often for lower quantities and more specific applications - such as in the production of conformal thin films on a substrate of interest. It is a technique that is not limited to graphene, but it is becoming a common choice, especially among academics. In PE-CVD, the deposition of carbon atoms is achieved by using carbon-based precursor materials with other working gases between two electrodes - a ground electrode and a radio frequency (RF) energized electrode.

Plasma-Based Methods

These are various method for producing graphene that have been gaining popularity in the academic world and has recently made it to a commercial production levels. There are a few different reactors (or reaction chambers) and methods to produce graphene with plasmas.


Plasmonics is a field of technology that exploits the physical phenomenon that occurs when light (photons) strikes the surface of a metal. When photons hit the surface of a metal, it excites the electrons on the surface of that metal in such a way that the electrons begin to move together like a wave. These waves of electrons are known as surface plasmon resonance (SPR).In 2011, Konstantin Novoselov and Andre Geim, the two University of Manchester scientists who won the Nobel Prize for discovering graphene, succeeded in improving photodetectors to the degree that they could boost optoelectronic data transfer rates by a factor of 20 by combining graphene with graphene-based plasmonic nanostructures. What this would translate into in terms of today’s optoelectronic data transfer rates is a boost of anywhere from 10 up to 100 times the speed of today’s systems.

Polymer Additive Manufactuing (AM)

Because graphene is easily processed into polymers this is an attractive application for graphene.

Pristine graphene

Pristine graphene is in its original condition (i.e. Ideal) and does not have a single defect. For laboratory purpose, a very small area of graphene is prepared thatdoes not have a single defect of any kind. If the word "Graphene"is used alone, it may refer to a material that includes a few defects.

Quantum Hall Effect

With the conditions of low temperature and strong magnetic fields, the resistance in a two-dimensional semiconductor can become quantized-an integer multiple.When electrons move across the planar semiconductor at temperatures a few degrees above absolute zero, a perpendicular magnetic field pushes moving charges at right angles to their direction of motion-driving negative charge to one edge of the chip, positive charge to the other edge, and producing a voltage gap and a precisely quantized resistance in between.

Radio Frequency Identifcation (RFID)

RFID devices and smart packaging look to be an area where graphene can be in a position to excel. In the general field of conductive inks, graphene is more expensive than many of the materials it is competing with, but many anticipate that as manufacturing processes improve both in terms of quality and yield this price difference will shrink. In smart packaging, it is actually the cheaper alternative to silver-based inks and given the nature of the smart packaging market might give it an ideal position to be the dominant material of the market.

Radio-Frequency Transistors (RF Transistors)

RF transistors are a type of FET. These transistors are often used in wireless devices, like mobile phones. Graphene in RF transistors suffers from strange saturation characteristics that limit its amplifying capabilities. Nonetheless, if mobile devices increasingly move towards flexible devices, graphene-based RF FETs are so superior in their flexibility that it’s easy to overlook their small drop off in electronic performance from the silicon and III-V semiconductor variety.

Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO)

Graphene Oxide in which much of the oxygen content has been removed (reduced) resulting in approximately 95% carbon by weight.

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH)

REACH is a regulation of the European Union, adopted to improve the protection of human health and the environment from the risks that can be posed by chemicals, while enhancing the competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry. It also promotes alternative methods for the hazard assessment of substances in order to reduce the number of tests on animals.

Reinforced Graphene

This is the use of carbon nanotubes to serve as a kind of reinforcement rebar for graphene, often used to protect during the manufacturing process. In order to produce high-quality graphene for electronic applicationssuch asreplacing indium tin oxide as a transparent conductor in displays for controlling pixels, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) requires the removal the graphene sheets from the copper substrated. This is difficult to do so without breaking the graphene. A reinforcement polymer is usually laid over the graphene to keep it from breaking during its removal, but this polymer leaves impurities. The graphene reinforced with carbon nanotubes addressses this issue.

Roll-to-Roll CVD (R2R)

Roll-to-roll (R2R) production of CVD graphene is considered a nearly automated process for synthesizing graphene (or any material) or devices on a roll of flexible plastic or metal foil. R2R processes are pretty widely used in for the production of electronic devices, coating, printing, and solar cells to name a few.

Saturable Absorbers (SAM)

A saturable absorber mirror (SAM) is a mirror within a laser cavity that is used to convert a continuous wave laser into a pulsed laser.The most common type of saturable absorber today is the semiconductor saturable absorber mirror(SESAM). Graphene-based saturable absorber components have been used to enable passive-mode locking in ultrafast laser operation, broad-band tunability, and quality-factor switching. Graphene multilayers have also been employed to generate large energy pulses and to achieve passive-mode locking in lasers with normal dispersion.

Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)

A device that obtains images of the atoms on the surfaces of materials - important for understanding the topographical and electrical properties of materials and the behaviour of microelectronic devices. The STM is not an optical microscope; instead it works by detecting electrical forces with a probe that tapers down to a point only a single atom across. The probe in the STM sweeps across the surface of which an image is to be obtained.

Selective-Laser Sintering (SLS)

SLS is a process where a flat bed of polymer powder (50 microns in size) is heated to just below melt temperature and then a laser is used to fuse the grains together into the desired cross section of the shape. Additional layers of 50 - 100 microns thick are spread smoothly across the surface and the process is repeated.

Self Assembly

Autonomous action by which components organise themselves into patterns or structures.


Silicene is the two-dimensional version of silicon. While it would appear to be an attractive 2D alternative to graphene, because it has an inherent band gap and is based on silicon that has been the mainstay of the chip industry for decades, it tends to self destruct, making it unstable.


This is a combination of silicon and graphene. This has particular usefulness in the electrode materials for energy strorage devices. While silicon has proven quite effective at storing energy on its surface, it is particularly brittle material so the expanding and contracting of it from charging and discharging cracks the material. However, if you coming the silicon with graphene it provides with much more flexibility and is less brittle.

Single-Layer Graphene (Monolayer Graphene)

This is graphene that consists one atomic layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice pattern of carbon atoms.

Singlewall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs)

SWCNTs are basically tubes of graphite with caps at their ends. However, the caps can be removed. The theoretical minimum diameter of a SWCNT is 0.4 nanometers. They are the stars of the carbon nanotube world and exhibit all the attractive electronic properties that are cited for carbon nanotubes. However, they are much more difficult to produce and therefore more costly than multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

Spin Transport

This is a phenomenon of electrons when they maintain their spin orientation as they cross the device. This is an important phenomenon in the field of spintronics. Graphene has demonstrated itself to be very good at not interacting with the spin transport of an electron as it passes across a device.


Spintronics uses the spin of electrons to encode information rather than their charge. If you laid graphene out flat, it didn’t appear to influence electron spin,that property remained random rather than patterned. But that all changed when scientists saw what happens when you put a small bend in the graphene. Since then, there’s been a steady stream of research looking at the capabilities of graphene in spintronic applications.


Basically a surface upon which a reaction occurs or something is grown or deposited.


Capacitors, like batteries, store electrical energy. But they can deliver that electrical energy in quick bursts-known as power density-whereas batteries can only release that power slowly over time. The big push has been to come up with a 'supercapacitor', or an 'ultracapacitor', that would have both a high-power density and high-energy density. To achieve this, the aim has been to increase the surface area of the materials covering the electrodes. The 'activated carbon' that is being used can have a surface area of up to 1,500m2/g. Graphene, on the other hand, has a very high surface area of 2630 m2/gram.

Thermally Conductive Additives

Thermoplastics and thermosets possess low thermal conductivity on their own. Additives to these polymers--like grpahene--increse in their thermal conductivity and transport heat effectively. This is especially useful in electrical and electronic applications.


Thermoplastics refer to a high molecular weight organic, synthetic polymer derived from petrochemicals. They soften and are pliable above a specific temperature, becoming solid again once cooled. This makes them exceptionally useful as a cheap, easily moldable, sturdy material. Because graphene is a multifunctional performance additive, it has the ability to improve the tensile strength and toughness of the polymer. Applications in packaging materials such as PET include acting as a barrier additive to reduce the oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor diffusion rate.


Thermoset resins are petrochemical based materials that irreversibly cure based in three methods: the application of heat, a chemical reaction by mixing with another component , or irradiation. For the most part, thermosets are liquids at room temperature, solidifying during the curing process.

Top-Down Manufacturing

Top-down manufacturing consists of taking something large and chipping away at it until you have the final version of the material or device you want, like sculpting. For instance, lithography would be considered a top-down manufacturing technique since you are removing bits from a chip you don't want.

Toxic Substances Control Act (TOSCA)

The Toxic Substances Control Act authorizes the EPA to collect information on chemical risks from manufacturers and processors and requires the agency to review information on new chemicals and uses before they are manufactured.

Transition Metal Dichalcogenide (TMDCs)

TMDs are materials that combine one of 15 transition metals with one of three members of the chalcogen family: sulfur, selenium, or tellurium. They belong to a family of compound materials with the generalized formula MX2, where M is transition metal and X is a chalcogen such as sulfur, selenium, or tellurium. The individual layer of TMDCs consists of three atomic layers in which the transition metal is sandwiched between two chalcogens. The electronic and optoelectronic components that have been fabricated using TMDC-layered materials, including FETs, sensors, and photodetectors, have been demonstrated to be viable substitutes to conventional silicon-based electronics and organic semiconductors. While TMDC-layered materials have been derived by mechanical exfoliation, liquid exfoliation, solvothermal process, and sulfurization of transition metal-based precursors, the CVD technique has been shown to be the most suitable for achieving wafer-scale uniformity for device fabrication.

Transparent Electrodes

One of the key applications of transparent electrodes is the touch screen such as on your phone or tablet. These resistive types of touch screen depend on short transparent electrodes between the top and bottom that are activated when mechanical force is applied to the system. Graphene in general—and CVD graphene in particular—has great potential in stepping into electrode applications for organic electronic devices that need low sheet resistance and high transparency.

Turbostatic Carbon

Three-dimensional sp2-bonded carbon material in which there is no defined number of layers. This means there is no spatial relationship between the positions of the carbon atoms in one graphene layer with those in adjacent layers. The name derives from ''turbo'' (rotated) and ''strata'' (layer) and can also be called rotationally faulted. This is a common structure in carbon materials prepared at lower temperatures or in ''hard carbons'' that do not pass through a fluid phase during carbonization and resist the development of 3D crystalline order even upon very high temperature heat treatment.

Two-Dimensional Heterostructures

2D heterostructures combine graphene with a semiconductor using CVD production techniques. The introduction of heterostructures of CVD graphene with other semiconductors might be the most significant commercial development for CVD-based graphene. The synthesis of heterostructures of CVD graphene with 2D semiconductors are transforming the commercial potential of CVD-produced 2D materials in applications including, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, gas sensors, tunneling transistors and resonant tunneling diodes. Essentially, the combining the properties of a conductor like graphene with a range of 2D semiconductors enables the fabrication novel devices that possess excellent electrical conductivity, tunable work function, doping to obtain p-type and n-type and high optical transparency.

Two-Dimensional Materials (2DM)

These are materials that consist of a single layer of atoms. Essentially, there is no top or bottom to them because they are just one single surface. These materials exhibit extraordinarly different properties to the 3D materials from which they originate from.

Ultrafast Graphene

This term could refer to graphene's high electron mobility in which electrons can travel through it faster than most other materials. However, it is often used with its use in optical devices in which it can photodetector that can convert absorbed light into an electrical voltage faster than any other devices.

US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

FDA will regulate nanotechnology products--including graphene--under existing statutory authorities, in accordance with the specific legal standards applicable to each type of product under its jurisdiction.